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58 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What developmental structure supplies oxygenated blood to fetus?
Umbilical vein
What developmental structure removes nitrogenous wastes from the fetal bladder?
Urachus
What fetal placental structure secretes hCG?
Syncitiotrophoblast
What is the maternal placental structure?
Decidua basalis (from endometrium)
What developmental structure returns deoxygenated blood from fetus? From where in the fetus?
Ubilical arteries (2)

from the fetal iliac arteries
What embryologic structure gives rise to ascending aorta & pulmonary trunk?
Truncus arteriosus
What embryologic structure gives rise to the coronary sinus?
Left horn of the sinus venosus (SV)
What embryologic structure gives rise to SVC?
Right common cardinal vein and Right anterior cardinal vein
What embryologic structure gives rise to the smooth parts of the left & right ventricles?
Bulbus cordis
What embryologic structure gives rise to the smooth part of the right atrium?
Right horn of the sinus venosus (SV)
What embryologic structure gives rise to the trabeculated left and right atrium?
Primitive atria
What embryologic structure gives rise to the trabeculated parts of the left & right ventricles?
Primitive ventricle
What structure divides the truncus arteriosus into the aortic and pulmonary trunks? What is its cellular origin?
The Spiral / Aorticopulmonary Septum.

Neural crest cells migrate --> truncal and bulbar ridges
Which fetal vessel has the highest oxygenation?
IVC (receiving 80% O2 blood from the umbilical vein, bypassing the liver via the ductus venosus)
What adult structures are derived from the 3rd, 4th, and 6th aortic arches?
3rd = Carotid (common & prox internal)
4th:
- L = Aortic arch
- R = Right subclavian (prox)
6th = Pulmonary aa's (prox)
- L = Ductus arteriosus
What are the right-to-left shunts?
Causing early cyanosis ("blue babies"):
5 T's:
- Tetralogy of Fallot
- Transposition of Great Vessels
- Truncus arteriosus (persistent)
- Tricuspid atresia
- TAPVR = Total anomalous pulmonary venous return
What are the left-to-right shunts?
Cause late cyanosis ("blue kids")

All the acronyms:
(listed in order of frequency)
- VSD
- ASD
- PDA
What is Eisenmenger's syndrome and why does it occur?
It is the pathophysiology behind late cyanosis in L-to-R shunts (VSD, ASD, PDA).

The shunt causes more blood to enter lungs, resulting in hypertrophy of pulmonary vessels.

Eventual Pulmonary HTN reverses the shunt to a R-to-L shunt --> late cyanosis
A 45-y/o male presents w/ BP of 160/90 on the R arm and 170/92 on the L; There are no palpable pulses in the feet/ankle. What problem does this pt most likely have?
Post-ductal Coarctation of the Aorta

May also have "notching of the ribs"
What is the bloodflow of a PDA?
Lower pressure in pulmonary system reverses a normal DA and blood flows from Aorta back into pulmonary circulation.

This leads to RVH and failure.
What are the risks for a macrosomic baby (e.g. born to a diabetic mother)?
CDEF:

C - Clavicle fracture
D - Dystocia (of the shoulder)
E - Erb-Duchenne palsy
F - Failure to progress during labor
Monozygotic twins delivered; One is pale w/ Hct of 15%, the other is flushed w/ Hct of 55%; What is the cause of these features?
Twin-Twin Transufsion

Shared placenta/umbilical cord and one received more blood than the other.
Child presents w/ cleft lip; what embryonic process failed?
M&M

Failure of the Nasal Processes to fuse:
- Maxillary nasal process
- Medial nasal process
How does the presentation of a branchial cleft cysts differ from that of a thyroglossal duct cyst?
Branchial cleft = lateral neck, doesn't move w/ swallowing

Thyroglossal duct = midline, moves w/ swallowing
What are the classic presenting symptoms of a syringomyelia?
Upper Extremity:
- Bilateral loss of pain/temp

Hand muscles:
- Weakness
- Atrophy
What abnormalities are often found w/ an Arnol-Chiari malformation?
3:
- Hydrocephaly
- Syringomyelia
- Myelomeningocele
What is the female homologue of the scrotum?
Labia MAJORA
What is the female homologue of prostate gland?
Urethral & paraurethral glands
What is the female homologue of the corpus spongiosum?
Vestibular bulb
What is the female homologue of the bulbourethral glands?
Vestibular glands
What is the female homologue of the ventral shaft of the penis?
The labia minora
A 24 y/o male develops testicular cancer; Metastatic spread occurs by what route?
Lymph drainage = Para-aortic Lymphocele --> body
Presence of ovaries but male genitalia?
Female pseudo-hermaphrodite
(XX)
Ambiguous genitalia until puberty, then masculinization?
Male pseudohermaphrodite.

"Penis @ 12" d/t surge in testosterone overcoming the DHT deficiency (d/t 5α-reductase deficiency)
A 23 y/o pt presents w/ one testicle. What is he @ risk for?
35x increased risk of a germ cell tumor.

d/t cryptorchism
A 16 y/o female presents w/ amenorrhea; it is later discovered that she lacks a uterus and fallopian tubes and there are 2 round structures in the midline superior to the labia majora; What is the likely cause?
Androgen insensitivity syndrome.

Testes are near the labia majora and must be removed d/t increased cancer risk.

XY pseudohermaphrodite
Most common cause of early cyanosis?
Tetrology of fallot
Most common cause of late cyanosis?
VSD --> Eisenmeiger's syndrome
Most common cause of primary amenorrhea?
Turner syndrome (XO)
Most common chromosomal disorder?
Down syndrome (21)
Most common cause of congenital mental retardation?
Fetal alcohol syndrome

2 - Down
3 - Fragile X
Most common lethal genetic disease of Caucasians?
Cystic fibrosis (CF)
Most common cause of congenital malformations in US?
EtOH --> Fetal alcohol syndrome
What germ layer gives rise to the retina?
Neuroectoderm (ectoderm)
What germ layer gives rise to the salivary glands?
Surface ectoderm
What germ layer gives rise to the pancreas?
Endoderm
(ventral bud from the liver diverticulum from the foregut)
What germ layer gives rise to the muscles of the abdominal wall?
Mesoderm
What germ layer gives rise to the thymus?
Endoderm
What germ layer gives rise to the spleen?
Mesoderm
(dorsal mesentery)
What germ layer gives rise to the aorticopulmonary septum?
Neural crest (ectoderm)
What germ layer gives rise to the anterior pituitary?
Surface ectoderm
What germ layer gives rise to the posterior pituitary?
Neuroectoderm (ectoderm)
What germ layer gives rise to the bones of the skull?
Neural crest (ectoderm)
What germ layer gives rise to the cranial nerves?
Neural crest (ectoderm)
What is the most common type of TE Fistula?
Type C: (85%)
- Upper esophagus --> blind pouch
- Lower esophagus --> connects to trachea
What is Potter's syndrome?
Bilateral renal agenesis d/t failure of the ureteric bud.

Leads to:
- oligohydramnios
- pulmonary hypoplasia
- limb & facial anomalies
What is the classic presentation of congenital pyloric stenosis?
1) palpable epigastric "olive"
2) NON-bilious, projectile vomiting
3) Hypochloremic Met Alk w/ Hypokalemia
List as many teratogens as you can?
A (5): ACE Inhibitors, Alcohol, Alkylating agents, Aminoglycosides, Vit A
C (2): Carbamazepine, Cocaine
D (2) : DES, DM (maternal)
F: Folate antagonists (chemo)
I: Iodine
L: Lithium
P: Phenytoin
S: Smoking
T (2): Tetracyclines, Thalidomide
V: Valproate
W: Warfarin
X: X-rays