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95 Cards in this Set

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what does the urogenital triangle contain?
urethra and external genitalia
what region do the posterior scrotal nerve and vessel supply?
posterior part of the scrotum (duh)
how do the posterior scrotal nerve enter the urogenital triangle?
by passing lateral to the external anal sphincter muscle
what nerve does the posterior scrotal nerve arise from?
pudendal
with what is the superficial fatty layer of the superficial perineal fascia continuous?
superficial fatty layer of the abdominal wall, ischioanal fossa and thigh
with what is membranous layer of the superficial perineal fascia (colles) continuous?
scarpa's and the dartos fascia of penis and scrotum
what is the Colles fascia of the urogenital region attached to?
from ischiopubic ramus to ischial tuberosity posteriorly and to the posterior edge of the perineal membrane
the Colles fascia forms the superficial boundaries of what pouch?
the superficial perineal pouch
what is the contents of the superficial perineal pouch in males?
3paired muscles: superficial transverse perineal, bulbospongiosus, and ischiocavernous

also, crura of the penis and bulb of the penis

n a v that supply these structures
attachments of bulbospongiosus muscle
covers superficial surface of the bulb of the penis

posterior attachments: bulbospongiosus on the opposite side & perineal body

anterior: corpus cavernosum
fxn of bulbospongiosus muscle
expel urine or semen
attachments of ischiocavernous muscle
proximal: ischial tuberosity and ischiopubic ramus
distal: crus of the penis
schiocavernous muscle fxn
forces blood from the crus of the penis into the distal part of the corpus cavernosum penis
superficial transverse perineal muscle attachments
lateral: ischial tuberosity and ischiopubic ramus

medial: perineal body
fxn of superficial transverse perineal muscle
helps to support the perineal body
what is the perineal body?
fibromuscular mass located anterior to the anal canal and posterior to the perineal membrane that serves as an attachment for several muscles
what are attached to the perineal membrane?
bulb of the penis and crura
what is the crus of the penis part of?
the corpus cavernosum penis
where might urine accumulate if the uretra is injured in the perineum?
it may escape into the superficial pouch and spread into the scrotum and penis, upward into the lower abdominal wall between the Scarpa's fascia and the aponeurosis of the external oblique
why when urethra is injured does urine not accumulate in the thigh?
because the membranous layer of superficial fascia attaches to the fascia lata, ishiopubic ramus and posterior edge of the perineal membrane
where does the superficial dorsal vein of the penis drain?
into the superficial pudendal vein of the inguinal region
drainage of the deep dorsal vein of the penis
into prostatic venous plexus
the dorsal artery (there are two -- one on each side of deep dorsal vein) is a terminal branch of which artery?
internal pudendal
what is near the two dorsal neves of the penis
one nerve on each side of the midline, lateral to the deep dorsal artery
the dorsal nerve of the penis is a branch of which artery?
the pudendal nerve
how does the deep dorsal vein enter the pelvis?
it passes between the inferior pubic ligament and the anterior edge of the perineal membrane
does the deep dorsal vein accompany the deep dorsal artery and dorsal nerve proximal to the body of the penis?
NO
what are the contents of the deep perineal pouch in the male?
membranous urethra, external urethral sphincter muscle, bulbourethral glands, branches of the internal pudendal vessels, and branches of the pudendal nerve
external urethral sphincter muscle fxn
when contracted, compresses membranous urethra and stops the flow of urine
attachments of deep transverse perineal muscle
lateral: ischial tuberosity and the ischiopubic ramus
medial: perineal body

its fiber direction and function are identical to those of the superficial transverse perineal muscle (fxn is mostly supportive)
which part of the urethra is the thinnest?
membranous urethra (from perineal membrane to the prostate gland)
passage of duct of bulbourethral gland
passes through the perineal membrane and drains into the proximal portion of the spongy urethra
what structures do the pudendal nerve and internal pudendal artery supply?
external urethral sphincter muscle
deep transverse perineal muscle
penis
collectively, what are the muscles within the deep perineal pouch plus the perineal membrane known as?
urogenital diaphragm
lymphatic drainage of labium majus
drain to superficial inguinal lymph nodes
how does the posterior labial nerve enter the urogenital triangle?
by passing lateral to the external anal sphincter muscle
what vessels/nerves supply the posterior part of the labium majus?
posterior labial nerve and vessels
two layers of superficial fascia in women and their fxn
superficial fatty layer and deep membranous layer

superficial fatty provides shape of labium majus and is continuous with the fat of the lower abdominal wall, ischioanal fossa, and thigh

membranous layer forms the superficial boundary of the superficial perineal pouch
what is the membranous layer of the superficial perineal fascia (Colles' fascia) attached to?
ischiopubic ramus as far posteriorly as the ischial tuberosity and to the posterior edge of the perineal membrane
contents of the superficial perineal pouch in the female
three muscles (ischicavernosus, bulbospongiosus, superficial transverse perineal), crus of the clitoris, bulb of the vestibule, greater vestibular glands (these structures are paired)

also contains blood vessels and nerves for these structures
R: bulbospongiosus and labium minus
b is lateral
what does the bulbospongiosus cover in the female?
superficial surface of the bulb of the vestibule
attachments of bulbospongiosus (female)
posterior: perineal body
anterior: corpus cavernosum clitoris

(there are no midline attachments in the female)
what does ischiocavernosus muscle cover in females?
superficial surface of the crus of the clitoris
fxn of ischiocavernosus in female
forces blood from the crus of the clitoris into the distal part of the corpus cavernosum clitoris
attachments of superficial transverse perineal muscle in female
lateral: ischial tuberosity and ischiopubic ramus
medial: perineal body
fxn of superficial transverse perineal muscle in female
support perineal body
what are attached to the perineal membrane?
bulb of the vestibule and crura
where is the greater vestibular gland found?
in the superficial perineal pouch immediately posterior to the bulb of the vestibule
what form the body of the clitoris?
the two corpora cavernosa
what are the contents of the deep perineal pouch in the female?
urethra, portion of the vagina, external urethral sphincter muscle, branches of the internal pudendal vessels and nerve
what does the pudendal nerve innervate in the deep perineal pouch in females?
external urethral sphincter
deep transverse perineal muscle
clitoris
what does the midgut become?
distal duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, ascending colon, and proximal 2/3 of transverse colon
what does the hindgut give rise to?
distal 1/3 of transverse colon, descending and sigmoid colon, rectum
what does the dorsal mesentery of the foregut become?
greater omentum
after the primary intestinal loop herniates into the umbilicus, what happens?
it undergoes an initial 90 degree counterclockwise rotation. the midgut then undergoes an additional 180 degree counterclockwise rotation as it retracts into the abdomen
what are the derivatives of the primitive foregut?
pharynx, thoracic esophagus, abdominal esophagus, stomach, superior half of the dudonum
which arteries will supply which parts of the primitive gut tube?
celiac trunk -- foregut
superior mesenteric artery -- midgut
inferior mesenteric artery -- hindgut
what is the predecessor of the ventral mesentery? what will the ventral mesentery itself eventually become?
septum transversum (the ventral mesentery is a thinning of this septum)

it will eventually become the falciform ligament and lesser omentum
what does the ventral mesentery connect to the ventral body wall?
the stomach and developing liver
what does the abdominal foregut give rise to?
stomach, duodenum, liver, pancreas, gallbladder
what venous system does the hepatic diverticulum grow into?
the vitelline veins that are draining the heart
what is the space behind the liver between the anterior abdominal wall and diaphragm called?
subphrenic recess
as liver grows and moves superiorly into the septum transversum, what will the septum differentiates into?
the diaphragm
where is the subhepatic recess?
space in peritoenum behind liver and in front of kidney
by day 26, the liver is the primary site of what process?
hematopoesis
how does the pancreas and gall bladder form?
gall bladder and ventral process of pancreas grow out of ventral side of foregut and then swing posteriorly around so that ventral bud can fuse with dorsal bud. gall bladder will be posterior to pylorus of stomach
what is an annular pancreas?
when ventral pancreatic bud rotates the wrong way and becomes wrapped around the pylorus
what artery is found in the middle of the primary intestinal loop, around which rotation occurs?
SMA
what is the last thing to come back into the abdomen after herniation and rotation? what does this imply for the cecum?
large bowel, so cecum ends up under the liver and then descends into RLQ
what is Meckel's Diverticulum?
a persistance of the embryonic yolk stalk...this keeps small bowel attached to anterior wall via the umbilicus
omphalocele
an abdominal wall defect....failure of lateral body wall folds to close and midgut doe not return into the peritoneal cavity
what becomes of the visceral peritoneum of the liver?
the inferior serosdal membrane of the septum transversum
how is the lesser omentum formed?
from the ventral mesentery between the liver and the stomach
what does the cranial region of the septum transversum become?
central tendon of the diaphragm, myocytes of the pleuroperitoneal membranes
what does the central mesenchyme of the septum transversum become?
hematopoetic cells of liver
what does the caudal region (ventral mesentery) of the septum transversum become?
--falciform ligament
--visceral peritoneum of the liver, including the coronary ligament
--visceral peritoneum of the gallbladder
--lesser omentum including the hepatoduodenal and heptaogastric ligaments
does the duodenum herniate during rotation?
NO
what is the root of the small bowel mesentery?
peritoneal reflection that runs diagonally from the duodenal-jejunal junction at L2 to the ilieocecal jxn at L4

significant in preventing volvulus
what are secondarily retroperitoneal structures?
duodenum (2nd, 3rd, and 4th parts)
head, neck, body of pancreas
ascending & descending colon
does the spleen originate from the gut tube?
no, it comes from mesoderm that originates in the dorsal mesentery
what does the greater omentum originate from?
dorsal mesentery
what are the boundaries of the perineum?
anterior: pubic symph
laterally: ischiopubic rami and ischial tuberosities and sacrotuberous ligaments
posterior: sacrum and coccyx
the perineal body,which is an irregular mass of variable consistency containing collagenous and elastic fibers, as well as muscle, is the site of convergence of which muscles?
bulbospongiosus
external anal sphincter
superficial and deep transverse perineal muscles
smooth and voluntary slips of muscle from the external urethral sphincter, levator ani, and muscular coats of rectum
in males, what does the superficial perineal pouch contain?
root of penis and associated muscles
proximal part of spongy urethra
superficial transverse perineal muscles
deep perineal branches of internal pudendal vessels and nerves
in females, what does the superficial perineal pouch contain?
clitoris
bulbs of vestibule
greater vestibular glands
superficial transverse perineal muscles
deep perineal branches of internal pudendal nerves and vessels
what are the three muscles of the male superficial perineal pouch?
superficial transverse perineal
bulbospongiosus
ischiocavernosus
what is the difference between the corpora cavernosa and the corpus spongiosum of the penis?
spong is medial and is overlaid by the bulbospongiosus
cavernosa is lateral and overlaid by ischiocavernosus
the dorsal nerve (bilateral) of the penis is a branch of what nerve?
pudendal
what is the glans penis and how is it related to the corpus spongiosum?
glans is at the top of the penis and it is a continuation of the same erectile tissue as the spongiosum
what is the contents of the deep perineal pouch in the male?
membranous urethra
external urethral sphincter
bulbourethral glands
branches of internal pudendal artery
branches of pudendal nerve
what is the contents of the superficial perineal pouch in females?
3 muscles
crus of clitoris
bulb of the vestibule
greater vestibular gland
what does the ischiocavernosus muscle cover in the female?
curs of the clitoris
what are the three branches of the pudendal nerve in female?
external urethral sphincter
deep transverse perineal
clitoris
what are the contents of the deep perineal pouch in a female?
urethra
part of the vagina
external urethral sphincter
branches of internal pudendal artery
branches of pudendal nerve