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222 Cards in this Set

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belief abnormal behavior results from the person being possessed or otherwise influenced by evil spirits
demonology
mental disorders can be attributed to bodily malfunction or imbalance
somatogenisis
published a classification system in attempt to establish a biological basis for mental disorders, symptoms occurred in clusters- grouped them
Emil Krapelin
Emil Krapelin's clusters of disorders
Mental retardation
aggression
psychosis
hyperactivity
masturbatory insanity
Emphasis on causes due to multiple factors, psychosexual stages (need to get through all stages otherwise you will have a fixation), psychoanalytic theory
Sigmund Frued
Psychosexual stages (5)
oral
phallic
anal
latency
gentital
children's symptoms related to developmental stages
Anna Frued
Loud noise, white rate, pairings can condition, believed that he could get any child to be a doctor, lawyer, beggar, etc. using the principles of behavior
John Watson
collected questionnaire data about childhood fears, drams, preferences, crying, social disorders
Hall
intelligence performance testing and norms, different kids, different ages, age based norms, could identify kids who need special ed
Binet and Simon
What's abnormal?
-deviates from the norm
-shows degrees of distress
-degree of stability
-distress and disability leads to an increase of harm
-developmental standards (ie. comparison across *age*)
What the the most important factor to consider when considering childhood disorders?
AGE
-index of development
-compare with typical rate
1st Q to ask- How old is your child?
Behavioral indicators of disorders
1.developmental delay
2.developmental regression
3.extremely high or low frequency
4.extremely high or low intensity
5.difficulty persists over time
6.inappropriate to the situation
7.several problem behaviors
8.behavior qualitatively different from normal
Gender prevalence (Males-higher)
Mental retardation
reading disabilities
language disabilities
autism
asperger's
oppositional disorder
rumination
encopresis
enuresis
tourette's
substance abuse
conduct disoder
ADHD
Gender prevalence (females higher)
rett's
anxiety disorders
depression
eating disorders
Age of onset = Birth
language disorders
autism
rett's disorder
asperger's disorder
Age of onset = 5-12 yrs
ADHD
Age of onset = 6-18 yrs
conduct disorder
Age of onset = 5-18 yrs
Learning disorders
Age of onset = 12-18 yrs
schizophrenia
drug abuse
bulimia
anorexia nervosa
Why the gender differences in psychological disorders of childhood?
-boys are more biologically vulnerable
-gender role socialization
-differently affected by
1. chaotic environments
2. stress
3. parental psychopathology
-biological and environmental interactions
Why might gender differences of psychopathology SEEM lower for females?
-Differential expressions= female rates of aggression seem lower because they express it differently "she's a slut"
-referral bias= males are more disruptive..one's who get referred to clinic
-this is why we get a biased data collection
etiology of any psychopathology is multidetermined
multideterminism
sequence and timing of behavior
Developmental pathways
different pathways may lead to similar expressions of psychopathology
equifinality
multifinality
similar initial pathways may result in different forms of dysfunction
Kids who exhibit resilience would:
1. manage to avoid negative outcomes and/or achieve positive outcomes
2. display sustained competence under stress
3. show recovery from trauma
Risk factors for psychological disorders of childhood
1. constitutional
2. Family
3. emotional and interpersonal
4. intellectual and academic
5. ecological
6.nonnormative stressful life events
Resilience factors for psychological disorders of childhood
1. indivdual
2. good intellectual functioning
3. sociable, easygoing
4. self- confidence, self-efficacy
5. talents
6. close relationship to caring parent (with rules)
7. connections to social organizations
8. attendance at effective schools
constitutional risk factors
1. hereditary influences, genetic abnormalities
2.prenatal or birth complications
3. postnatal disease or damage
4.inadequate healthcare or nutrition
family risk factors
1.poverty
2.abuse, neglect
3.conflict, disorganization, psychopathology, stress
4. large family size
emotional and interpersonal risk factors
1. low self esteem, emotional immaturity
2. social incompetence
3. peer rejection
intellectual and academic risk factors
1. below average intelligence
2. learning disability
3. academic failure
ecological risk factors
1. neighborhood disorganization, crime
2. racial, ethnic, gender injustice
nonnormative stressful life events
1. early death of a parent
2. outbreak of war in enviornment
Causes: Biological influences: Brain Development
1. overabundance of undifferentiated cells
2. axons grow
3. connections form
4. genes determine where axons connect
5. synapses multiply
6. selective pruning
7. neural plasticity
*environment is key
In cases of extreme neglect, the brain is much ____. This demonstrates that ____is crucial.
smaller
crucial
Name the 3 parts of the Brain stem and their function
1. Midbrain- motor supply to muscles
2. Pons- face sensation, movement
3. Medulla- breathing, heartbeat, digestion
part of the brain that controls motor coordination
cerebellum
regulates behavior and emotion
Hypothalamus
-regulates emotional experiences
-regulates expression
-regulates basic drives
-critical for learning and impulse control
Thalamus
Limbic System (5 parts)
Hippocampus
cingulate gyrus
amgdala
thalamus
hypothalmus
Regulates, organizes, filters, information related to cognition emotions mood and motor function
-damage to this has frontal lobe implications
-ADHD, OCD, Tourette's
-highly connected to the frontal lobes
Basal Ganglia
Frontal lobes
1. thinking
2. reasoning
3. working memory
4. self control
5.social
Parietal lobes
1. integrate signals
*immature until age 16
Temporal lobes
1. memory
2. emotional maturity
*still developing after age 16
What happens with too much stress? (Endocrine system)
too much stress -> loop disrupted -> constant state of fear -> hypervigilant -> toxic over time
Endocrine System Feedback loop- response to stress
pituitary gland -> hypothalamus -> hypothalamus -> adrenal glands -> HPA axis
HPA axis
hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal
Adrenal glands release ___ and ___. What do these do?
epinephrine (adrenaline... prepares body for threat)
cortisol (stress hormone)
reduces arousal, modulates emotional responses, anger, hostility, aggression, linked to anxiety and discomfort, implicated role in psychopatholgy = anxiety
GABA
switch turns on various circuits, involved in exploratory, extroverted, pleasure seeking behavior, role in psychopathology= schizophrenia, mood disorders, ADHD, substance abuse
Dopamine
controls emergency reactions and alarm responses
role in regulating emotions and behavior
role in psychopathology= modulate behavioral tendencies
Norepinephrine
information processing
motor coordination
inhibits tendency to explore
regulates eating, sleeping, aggression
role in psychopathology= eating disorders, sleep disorders, OCD, schizophrenia, mood disorders
Seritonin
genotype + environment =
phenotype
genotype
genetic material that is passed on
share 100% of genes
monozygotic
share 50% of genes
dizygotic
% of cases in which a characteristic displayed by one child is also displayed by the twin
concordance rate
threshold and intensity of emotional experience
emotion reactivity
ability to monitor, evaluate, and modify one's emotional reactions to accomplish a goal
emotion regulation
What are the two types of dysregulation
underregulation
overregulation
child's organized style of behavior that appears early in development
temperment
Approachable and adaptive
regulates eating, sleeping and eliminating smoothly
positive affect and approach
"easy child"
Cautious in approaching novel or challenging situations
variable in self regulation
shows distress or negativity in some situations
Fearful or inhibited "slow to warm up"
negative and intensely moody, not adaptable
show distress or irritability in situations
negative affect or irritability "difficult child"
Which temperament is at the most risk for developing a childhood disorder?
negative affect or irritability "difficult child"
who developed applied behavior analysis
skinner
increased probability behavior will be repeated
add something
positive reinforcement
increased probability behavior will be repeated
take something away
negative reinforcement
decreased probability behavior will be repeated
eg. spanking
positive punishment
decreased probability behavior will be repeated
eg. time out
negative punishment
what are some side effects of positive punishment
-increased aggression
-avoidance behavior
-modeling
-temporary suppression
(see cop on freeway slow down)
neutral stimuli and unconditioned stimuli paired (bell + food)
classical conditioning
watson
-loud noise = ____ ____
unconditioned stimulus
how children think about themselves and others
social cognition
behavior can be learned through observation, no only by operant and classical conditioning
-kids who watch parent be violent with bobo become violent with bobo
-didn't watch= less violent
social learning (aka modeling)
the process of establishing and maintaining an emotional bond with parents or other significant individuals
attachment
type of attachment protective against psychopathologies
Secure type of attatchemnt
type of attachment which leads to conduct disorders, aggressive behaviors, depression
Insecure: anxious avoidant type of attachment
type of attachment with no pattern of regulating emotions, unable to get close, personality disorders
Disorganized disoriented type of attachment
integrated set of propositions to explain phenomena
theory
tentative assumptions derived from theoretical notions
hypotheses
During the research process we must ______.
consider the child every step of the way
set of standards that ensures consistency across measurements
standardization
repeatability/consistency of measures
reliability
correctness, soundness, or appropriateness of the findings (are you measuring what you set out to measure?)
validity
Case studies focus on ____.
indivdual
What are the advantages of case studies?
nature
course
correlates
outcomes
etiologic (causes)
What are the disadvantages of case studies
biases
reliability
validity
generalization
in correlational methods the closer the coefficient r is to ____ the greater the relationship.
-1 or +1
What are the advantages to the interview?
semistructured
can probe
expand and clarify responses
What are the disadvantages to the interview?
time consuming
subject willing to report
interviewer desirability bias
(child saying things you want to hear)
What are the advantages to the questionnaire?
highly structured
not time consuming
can obtain a lot of info
what are the disadvantages to the questionnaire?
cannot probe, expand or clarify responses
subject willing to report
non responders
liars?
What are the advantages to observation?
structured or naturalistic
What are the disadvantages to observation
time consuming
coding system influences
(watch videos for hours, difficult)
subject react to observation
what you are measuring
dependent variable
conditions or manipulations selected by the researcher
independent variable
experimental methods
-explicitly stated hypothesis
-subjects randomly assigned to groups
-conditions or manipulations -selected by the reseacher
-observation and measurement
-procedures well controlled
-compare the effects of the manipulations on the groups
A-B-A design
Baseline- Intervention-Reversal
Reversal Design
Standard to measure change
baseline
Baseline- one intervention for one behavior- another intervention for another behavior
multiple baseline across designs
different ages at the same time, NOT measuring developmental change, measures age differences
cross sectional design
can study developmental change, same kids across time
longitudinal design
study of incidence, prevalence and co-occurrences of childhood disorders and competencies
epidemiological research
number of new cases of a disorder in a specific period
incidence rates
all cases observed
prevalence rates
children who have had a disorder in their lifetime
lifetime prevelance
imaging techniques that are structural imaging
Ct, MRI
imaging techniques that are functional imaging
EEG, PET, fMRI
Ethics involved in research
informed consent and assent
voluntary participation
privacy
do no harm and do good
informed consent=
parents sign
assent=
kids 7 and older sign
use problem-solving strategies to understand the disturbances, the family eniorment and school and peer relations
clinical assessments
to achieve effective solutions, to promote and enhance well being of the child
goal of assessment
emphasizes the detailed representation of the individual or family as unique entity (more narrow)
idiogrpahic
emphasizes general principles that apply to all people (broader)
nomothetic
3 purposes of assessment
1. clinical description & diagnosis
2. prognosis
3. treatment planning and evaluation
Developmental considerations
age, gender, culture
-a summary
-intensity, frequency, severity
-age of onset and duration
-symptoms
clinical description
-Taxonomic diagnosis, based on system of classification
-problem solving analysis- gather info, understand individuals
diagnosis
Parents...
-can they pay for treatment
-do they have time to be involved
-motivated
treatment planning and evaluation
clinical interviews
-developmental family histories
-mental status exam
-semi-structured interview
appearance, behavior, thought processes, mood and affect, intellectual functioning and awareness of surroundings
mental status exam
ask questions about particular problem
semi-structured interview
Behavioral assessment: means of assessment
1. abc's of assessment
2. checklists and rating scales
3. behavioral observations and recording
-real life setting
-role play simulation
Behavioral observation and recording
4 types of psychological tests
1. intelligence
2. projective
3. personality
4. neuropsychological
most common
intelligence
5 reasons to avoid diagnosis
1. oversimplifies
2. creates self fulfilling prophecy
3. leads to social rejection and stigma
4. ignores underlying continuity
5. diagnoses can be unreliable
axis I
axis II
axis III
axis IV
axis V
I: clinical syndromes
II: developmental and personality disorders
III: general medical conditions
IV: psychosocial stressors
V: global assessment of function
develop awareness of unconscious factors
psychodynamic
+ reinforcement, time out, modeling, systematic desensitization
behavioral
change faulty cognitions (eg. irrational beliefs, misinterpretations)
cognitive
???
cognitive behavioral
fix social or environmental circumstances
client centered
work with the entire family (foster communication)
family
medicate ECT
biological
eclectic, use diff approaches for children with diff prob's and circumstantces
combined
behavioral disorder, prominent symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity
ADHD
do not focus on demands
behave carelessly
inattentive
disorganized hurried thinking
cognitive impulsivity
calling out in class
behavioral impulsivity
symptoms associated with ADHD all lead to problems with ____ ____ especially _____.
academic achievement especially reading
____ is not at problem for children with ADHD.
Attentional capacity
amount of info that can be remembered and attended to for a short time (eg. directions and phone number)
attentional capacity
ability to concentrate on relevant stimuli and not be distracted by noise
selective attention
ability to maintain a persistent focus over time when fatigued
sustained attention
primary deficit in kids with ADHD
sustained attention
term for a deficit in selective attention
distractability
subtype of ADHD (greater than 6 of 9 symptoms)
inattentive type
hyperactive impulsive type
rarest type of ADHD
hyperactive-impulsive type
error of commission
error of omission
commission-respond when you shouldn't
omission- you "miss" it
control processes that activate integrate and manage other brain functions
executive functions
80% of ADHD qualifty for _____ when using broad definitions.
learning disorders
exaggeration of one's competence (associated with hyperactive/inattentive type of ADHD)
-opposite is true for kids with Inattentive type...report lower self esteem
positive illusory bias
sleep disturbances in children with ADHD
-resistent to go to bed
-fewer total hours of sleep
-involuntary sleep movements (grind teeth)
motor coordination difficulties
-clumsiness
-poor performance in sports
-poor handwriting
Tic disorders
-sudden repetitive, nonrhythmic motor movements or phonic productions
-eye blinking facial grimacing, throat clearing, grunting
bothersome, stubborn, socially awkward, people don't like them
peer problems in kids with ADHD
-30-60 % have impairments
-excessive loud talking
-frequent shifts in topics
-interruptions in convo
-inability to listen
-inappropriate convo
speech and language deficits in ADHD
Family problems in ADHD
sibling conflict, extra parental stress
-50% ADHD (mostly boys) meet criteria for ___
-stubborn short tempered combative
oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)
-30-50% eventually develop CD
-more severe than ODD
-violates societal rules (prob's with school and the police)
-fight cheat and steal, set fires destroy property use illegal drugs
Conduct disorder (CD)
Those children with high comorbidity of CD and ODD have which type of ADHD?
Hyperactive/Impulsive
Those children with which type of ADHD have high comorbidity with mood disorders (depression, bipolar, etc)?
Inattentive type
Why has ADHD increased so much since 1980?
-increases in diagnosis
-greater access to treatment
-growing public awareness
-brief screening instruments more popular
Boy with ADHD are refered more than girls because of their _____.
agression
Girls with ADHD demonstrate
-inattentive/disorganized symptoms
-forgetfulness, sluggishness, drowsiness, tendency to daydream, anxiety, depression and hyperverbal
-less likely to receieve stimulant med's
ADHD motivation deficts theory
diff sensitivity to rewards and punishments
ADHD arousal deficits theory
-abnormal level of arousal
-child tries to maintain optimal level of arousal by excessive self stimulation
ADHD self regulation deficits theory
deficits in ability to self regulate (difficulty using thought and language to direct behavior)
ADHD response inhibition deficits theory
inability to delay inital reactions or to stop behavior once it's started
Genetic risk + prenatal alcohol/ tobacco exposure, pregnancy complications =
-dopamine transmision disturbances
-abnormalities in the frontal lobes and basal ganglia
Causes of ADHD Neurobiological factors: Anatomy...smaller volumes of
whole brain
frontal lobes
cerebellum
basal ganglia
temporal lobes
white matter
Causes of ADHD Genetic influences
runs in families
adoptions studies
twins studies
specific gene studies (genes that code for dopamine, dopamine receptors are possible culprits NOT ENOUGH DOPAMINE)
Frontal striatal circuit messed up in kids with ADHD. name the parts of this circuit
dorsalateral prefrontal
inferior prefrontal
orbitofrontal
basal ganglia
In kids with ADHD it may be that their mesocortical DA system is messed up. Explain
ventral tegmental area connects to the frontal cortex
attention and focusing
involved in attention and focusing
How can family influence ADHD
-may lead to greater severity of symptoms
-family prob's may result from interacting with an impulsive child who is hard to manage
-family conflict is related to later emergence of associate oppositional and conduct disorder symptoms
Meds used for ADHD. drugs that alter the frontal striatal activity by working on dopamine
stimulant medications
Four types of drugs used for ADHD
dexedrine, adderall, ritalin, cylert
What are the side effects of the stimulant drugs used in ADHD
weight loss
insomnia
increased tension
cognitive inflexibility (can't get out of thought pattern)
appetite loss
What are the essential features of Tourette's synrome (4) (***these are pretty much the same as the DSM IV)
*MULTIPLE* tics
-multiple motor
-one or more vocal
never tic free for more than 3 months
-onset before 18 years old
-not due to direct effects of stimulant Rx
brief, repetitive, purposeless, nonrythmic, involuntary movement or sound
tics
tics that produce movement
motor tics
tics that produce sound
vocal or phonic tics
one muscle group or one simple sound
simple tics
coordinated movement produced by a number of muscle groups or a linguistically meaningful utterance or phrase
complex tics
imitating one's actions
echopraxia
exhibiting inappropriate or taboo gestures
copropraxia
repeating one prase over and over
echolalia
outbursts of inapproriate expressions (cussing) ... rare...10%
coprolalia
sensory and psychic discomfort that may be mememtarily relieved
premonitory urge
sequence of a tic event
1. premonitory urger or sesory event
2.complex state or inner conflict
3. motor or phonic production
4. transient sensation of relief
urges to perform dangerous, forbidden, or senseless acts
ex's: touch hot iron, jump, car in reverse, shout in church
triggering perceptions
course Tourette's:
early as __
must occur before age __
median age of onset __ years
early as 2
must occur before 18
median onset 8-12 years
Prevalence of Tourette's
~1/100 invdivduals
19% in regular ed classes have tics
4% in regular ed classes meet diagnostic criteria for TS
Co-morbidities of Tourette's
ADHD
-50% or referred kids with TS diagnosed with comorbid ADHD
-high risk or anxiety mood disorders, odd and cd

OCD
-40% TS patients experience ocd symptoms
-aggressive and sexual obsessions common for comorbidity
-repeating and counting compulsions-common
tourette's- concordance rate for monozygotic twins
90%
if genetically predisposed to tourette's and get strep onset of inflation---tic
PANDAS
people with tourettes have problems with this part of the brain
basal ganglia
CSPT loop
cortico/striato/pallido/thalmic circuitry
PET studies show that people with tourettes have reduced glucose uptake in
-orbitofrontal cortex
-caudate
-parahippocampus
-midbrain region
People with tourettes have problems with this neurotransmitter in the striatum
dopamine receptors, dopamine release
-too much binding to receptors
-too much dopamine released in the striatum
Treatment for tourette's...meds
alpha 2 agonists
-clonidine hyrocholoride (Catapres)
side effects=dry mouth, drowsiness
-guanfacine (Tenex)
side effects=same but less severe
antipsychotics (antagonists)
-halperidol (haldol)
surgery..deep brain stimulation
antagonist
blocks
age inappropriate actions or attitudes that violate family expectations, societal norms, and the personal or property rights of others
conduct problems= antisocial behavior (ASB)
-legal term for antisocial behavior
-not necessarily considered a mental disorder
delinquency
mix of impulsive, overactive, agressive and delinquint acts
externalizing behaviors
key features of ASB
-vary in severity
-some behaviors decrease with age
-some behaivors increasewith age and opportunity
***more common in boys during childhood***
CD: prevalence
1-6% of 9-17 year olds
more common in boys than girls
more common in cities than rural areas
characteristics ODD
age inappropriate pattern of negativistic hostile and defiant behaviors
characteristics CD
severe aggressive and anitsocial acts that involve inflicting pain on others or interfering with others' rights
-almost always preceded by ODD
Characteristics ASPD
1. antisocial behavior
-disregard for rights others
-multiple illegal behaviors
2. psychopathy
-callous manipulative deceitful remorseless
-narcissitic
__% of people with ASPD have CD
40
In the brains of those with antisocial behavior..what is abnormal?
-frontal lobe hypoactive
-less gray matter
-abnormalities in limbic system- not processing emotional info typically
gene study shows...not producing enough dopamine, seritonin
For antisocial behavior, how are the neurotransmitters different from normal indivduals?
Decreased serotonin and dopamine
For antisocial behavior, how are the hormones different from normal indivduals?
Decreased testosterone
Antisocial behavior causes
*early maternal rejection
*separation from parents, w/o adequate alternatie caregiver
*early instituionalization
*familly neglect
*abuse or violence
*parental mental illness
*parental marital discord
*large family size
*crowding
*poverty
teach parents to change child's behavior using contingencies
improve parent child interactions and communications
Parent management Traning (PMT)
identify child's cognitive deficienceis and social situations, provide instruction practice and feedback to handle social situations better
Problem-solving skills training (PSST)
PMT +PSST + marital thearpy +_ etc
Multisystematic treatment (MST)