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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Severe childhood disorders that affect psychological functioning in the areas of language, social
relationships, attention, perception and affect are referred to as _____
Pervasive Developmental disorders
Impairment in social interactions includes lack of interest in others, body gestures, facial
expressions. Lack of awareness of other people's identity is noted. As infants, they prefer to be
left alone and not touched.
Verbal and non-verbal communications are impaired and there is lack of ability to speak properly
and coherently.
Autistic Disorders
Activities and interests are limited such as staring into space, total self-absortion and lack of
social empathy are noted.
IQ is usually less than seventy, showing mental retardation. However, sometimes autistic savants
are noted.
Autistic Disorders
Impaired and deviancy of parent-child interactions can cause autism. Cold and unresponsive
parenting might be another important factor.
Etiology of Autistic Disorders
Psychoanalyric (Psychodynamic) Theories
A predisposition interacting with the environmental stressors may result in this disorder.
Genetic Studies
Many organic conditions are associated with autism that suggests CNS impairment.
Central Nervous System Impairment
In general, these persons are very difficult to treat. Drug therapy has shown mixed results.
Behavior modification has been helpful and effective, but takes too long.
Treatment of Autistic Behavior
Symtoms include attention problems, hyperactivity. ADHD is relatiely common. Behavioral and
academic problems are also noted. Behaioral and academic problems are also noted.
Improvement seems to occur between ages 16 and 21.
Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD
ADHD with pervasive hyperactivity may show neurological deficits.
Eliminating food additives of certain chemicals from the diets of children have had little effects in
their behaviors. Some evidence of genetic transmission is noted
Etiology
Drug therapy has been effective. Stimulants increase the attention span and improve academic
performance, but this is not enough. A combined approach is needed including medication and
behavior therapy.
Treatment for ADHD
Symptoms include negativistic, argumentative and hostile behavior patterns, defying rules and
authority.
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Persistent patterns of anti-social behiors that violate the rights of others, including fighting,
temper tantrums, lying, fire setting, assaults, rape, and truant behavior.
Conduct Disorder
suggests childhood unset and adolescent onset types.
Conduct disorder in adloescents is a serious problem. It leads to antisocial personality and
criminality.
DSM- IV
Delinquent behavior is the symptom of underlying
anxiety and conflict in the child.
Inadequate relationship with parents is a causative factor. Lack of superego development is crucial
Psychoanalytic (Psychodynamic) View, Etiology of Conduct Disorder
Some evidence of genetic inheritance in connection with criminality has been noted.

The child fails to learn to respect the parents and authority. Lack of consistent
discipline is a contributing factor.
Genetic view
Behavioral view
for conduct disorder
Cognitive training appears to be promising. Development of social skills are important. These can
be gained through role modeling, role-playing and use of teaching videotapes.
Until the age of 18, a child is diagnosed as conduct disorder. After the age of 18, a person is
diagnosed as personality disorder.
Treatment of Conduct Disorder
The childhood disorders in which anxiety plays a role include separation anxiety disorder, avoidant
disorder, and over-anxious children.
Children with separation anxiety disorders seek the company of their parents constantly. Physical
complaints and crying are noted.
School phobia is one type of separatio nanxiety disorder.
Anxiety Disorders: Separation Anxiety Disorder
MAjor depressive episodes can begin very early in life, even in infancy. Symptoms include feelings
of sadness, loss of appetite, sleep difficulties and fatigue.
Abuse or neglect are major causes.
Childhood Depression
Symptoms include involuntary, repetitive and non-rhythmic movements. Most tics in children are
transient.
TIC Disorders
_____ may persist into adulthood.
Chronic tic disorder
Symptoms usually begin in childhood with facial and body tics and what seems to resemble
barking sounds.
Tourette's Syndrome
___and ___ are the primary factors in producing and maintaining tic disorders.
Anxiety and stress;
Etiology & Treatment of Tourette's Syndrome
forwards conditional avoidance responses initially evoked by stress. These
responses become habitual through reinforcement when they reduce anxiety.

Forced practice of tics may bring out fatigue, which inhibits the responses. The tic then develops
aversive properties and not performing it becomes reinforcing.
Learning theory
Habitual urination during day or night in one's clothes, bed or on the floor
Enuresis; elimination disorders
Repeated defecations into one's clothes, floor or bed. A more serious problem than enuresis
Encopresis; elimination disorders
Anorexia Nervosa
Symptoms include intense fear of becoming fat using self-starvation with physical complications.
This disorder is primarily seen in adolescent girls.
eating disorders
This disorder involves binge eating (rapid consumption of large amounts of food) followed by
purging (vomiting
Bulimia Nervosa
Both social and psychological factors are important. Preoccupation with being thin appears in
early adolescence. Distorted body image and poor self-esteem are other contributing factors
etiology of eating disorders
The anorexis patient has to be forced to gain weight, which sometimes mandates hospitalization.
Cognitive-behavioral treatments are also helpful.
Bulimia is treated by ___ and ___.
psychotherapy and anti-depressants

Treatment of Eating Disorders