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81 Cards in this Set

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_____ is an absence of eyelid tissue at birth. I mainly involves the upper lid at the middle and third junction.
coloboma
______ is an extra row of lashes arising from the meibomian gland orifice.
Distichiasis
Distichiasis is ______ or can occur sporadically.
Auto. Dominant
Distichiasis may cause ______ and/or _______. (2 general sequelae)
corneal staining, corneal hypoesthesia (decreased sensitivity)
_______ can be done to remove unwanted eyelashes (pestanos)
epilation
_______________ is a partial or complete fusion of the eyelid margins with krazy glue.
cyanoacrylate tarsorrhaphy
Briefy describe the process of patient care for cyanoacrylate tarsorrhaphy.
1- light pressure patch soaked in water or mineral oil.
2- reomove the glue with forcepss
3- trim and separate lashes
4- treat the corneal abrasion as normal
__________ occurs from an infection of the glands of Zeiss or moll with staph. Will this hurt?
External hordeolum, yes
What are some treatment methods for an external hordeolum?
HOT COMPRESS!!!
antibiotic ung (to prevent surrounding infections)
epilation
stab incision
---may require topical steriods or a systemic antibiotic
_______ is a localized staph infection of a meibomian gland. Does this hurt?
Internal hordeolum, yes
Which type of hordeolum has a longer onset and course?
the Internal hordeolum
What are 4 antibiotics that are good to treat a hordeolum.
1- penicilinase- resistant penicillin (dont give oral V)
2- erythromycin or azithromycin
3- tetracycline
4- cephalosporins
______ is a chronic, STERILE, lipgranulomatous inflammation of the meibomian gland. Does this hurt?
Chalazion, NO
What causes a chalazion?
retention of the normal secretions
Can a chalazion induce astigmatism?
yes
IF a chalazion does not go away after a hot compress what can you do?
use intralesional steroid injection (aka: Kenalog)
What should you think if a chalazion will not go away, or if it keeps recurring?
must rule-out sebaceous gland carcinoma
Some Drs. required the use of _______ for 6 weeks before performing incision and curettage on a chalazion.
tetracycline or doxycyline
_________ is inflammation of the eyelid margin.
blepharitis
What can be used to improve meibomian gland function?
tetracycline (due to its anti-inflammatory effects)
Staph blepharitis is caused by _____ and _____.
staph aureas and epidermidis
What are 2 sources of infection of staph blepharitis?
Demodex mite (a vector) or mascara
Patients with _____ are predisposed to getting staph blepharitis.
rosacea
What is the most common subclass of staph blepharitis?
Squamous--you will hard, brittle and scales and collarettes.

ulcerative is a less common subclass
______ is the loss of lashes.
Madarosis
___________ is a thickened lid margin.
Tylosis ciliaris
The bacterial of Staph blepharitis will secrete a _________. This will cause:
1-________
2-_________ (mostly found __ and ___)
3-_________
Necrotizing exotoxin
1- chronic papillary conjunctivitis
2- corneal limbal infiltration (located inferotemoral and inferonasal)
3- Phlyctenulosis
_______ is delayed hypersensitivity to the foreign proteins of bacteria.
Phylctenulosis
What is a treatment plan for staph blepharitis?
hot compress and a lid scrub with JBS. Follow with antibiotic ung
Can yellow mercuric oxide treat staph blepharitis?
yes
_________ is a localized form of seborrheic dermatitis and it seen with greasy, flaky lids and crusty lashes.
seborrheic blepharitis
Which has a redder lid margin, staph blepharitis or seborrheic blepharitis?
staph bleph
What is the main form of treatment? What is something that you can wash the eyelashes with?
Good hygiene, hot compress
- Selenium Sulfide (selsun)
Can you have both staph and seborrheic blepharitis at the same time?
yes, this is very common
___________ is simply an increase in the amount of secretions without solidification or surrounding inflammation.
meibomian seborrhea
In meibomian seborrhea you will see ______ in the tear menisus. and ______ with the slit lamp.
foam, multiple colors (lots of oil)
__________ is stagnation or solidification of meibomian secretions. Is this infectious?
Meibomianitis!! NOT infectious
If a patient has meibomianitis, what can you Rx for them? Why?
oral tetracycline. It improves the function of the meibomian glands.
__________ in an infection and inflammation of lateral and sometimes medial CANTHAL regions.
Angular blepharitis
Angular blepharitis is caused by ________ or staph (as always).
Moraxella
What are 3 signs of angular blepharitis.
1- hyperemia
2- desquamation
3- ulceration
What can you use to treat angular blepharitis caused by moraxella?
Zinc sulfate
What defines the septum on preseptal cellulitis.
aponeurosis and tarsal plate
______ is an infection and inflammation of lid structures anterior to the orbital septum.
preseptal cellulitis
What are 3 ways to get preseptal cellulitis?
1- penetrating trauma
2- spread from adjacent infection
3- extension of inter/external hordeolum
Can preseptal cellulitis turn into orbital cellulitis? What is the most common cause of orbital cellulitis?
yes, sinus infections
What are 7 great ways to differentiate b/t preseptal and orbital cellulitis?
1- proptosis
2- vision
3- pupils
4- motility
5- pain on movement
6- IOP
7- temperature
_______ probably causes preseptal cellulitis in kids.
Haemophilus Gram -
What "test" must you always consider when the preseptal cellulitis is caused by a penetrating injury?
Tetanus immunization. They must have had the shot in the last 5 years.
____________ is an eyelid infestation by 3 kinds of lice.
phthiriasis palpebrarum
________ is eyelid infestation of the Pediculus species.
Pediculosis
Phthiriasis is usually caused by _____ lice (its all about the hair diameter)
pubic
Can yellow mercuric oxide ung be used to treat phthiriasis?
yes (you want to smother the louse)
What are 2 medications that can treat body lice. Can these be put into the eyelashes?
1- kwell
2- Rid

NO!!!!!!!
______ is a drooping of the upper lid.
ptosis
Congenital ptosis is _____ and is usually caused by a problem with the levator.
autosomal dominant
What are 6 causes of acquired ptosis.
1- horners
2- CN III palsy
3- Myasthenia gravis
4- trauma
5- mechanical
6- thiamine deficiency in childhood
What are some causes of pseudoptosis?
1- microphthalmia
2- phthisis bulbi
3- anophthalmia
4- enophthalmos
5- dermatochalasis
6- lid cellulitis
What can you do to confirm horners?
Drop 2.5% phenylephrine 9 gt onto the eye. The eyelid on the affected side should elevate to confirm horners
___________ injected should produce elevation of a ptotic lid if the condition is Myas. Gravis.
edrophonium chloride
If you get a cholinergic reaction with the tensilon test, what can give to correct it?
atropine (an anti-cholinergic)
What are 2 medications used as therapy for myasthenia gravis?
1- neostigmine bromide
2- pyridostigmine bromide

oral prednisone if these dont work
________ is fasciculations of the orbicularis.
eyelide myokymia
What can you give for persistent eyelide myokymia?
1- topical antihistamine
2- oral antihistamine
3- oral quinine (do NOT give to pregnant women as it causes abortion.
4- gin and tonic (has quinine)
__________ is chronic and prgressive bilateral involuntary contraction of the orbicularis.
essential blepharospasm
________ innervates the orbicularis.
CN VII (think bells palsy)
Essential blepharospasm mostly affects _____ in their ______ decade.
females, 5th or 6th
A CNS ______ imbalance may cause essential blepharospasm.
dopamine (think parkinson)
What is a common treatment for essentail blepharospasm?
botox injections (this blocks the release of Ach from the nerve terminals and thus the orbicularis can not contract) Note: all muscles innervated by Ach will have side effects.
________ is the inability to funnly close lids
lagophthalmos
Can a VII palsy cause lagophthlamus?
yes!
Anything that causes keratis will probably also cause ______.
hypoesthesia
_______ can cause inferior punctate keratitis.
incomplete blinking
_____ is the spilling of tears onto the cheek.
epiphora
______ is the most common cause of ectropion.
involutional (aka: senile)
_______ ectropion is secondary to scarring of the skin.
cicatricial
A major clue that ectropion is cicatricial is when the patient _________ - the ectropion is accentuation.
opens his mouth!!
__________ is when the eyelid is esily everted (upper lid) due to the loss of tarsal integrity. Happens mostly during sleep.
floppy eyelid syndrome
Floppy eyelid syndrome occurs mostly in ______ ___.
middle aged men
Will you see chronic,thick, mucoid discharge in floppy lid syndrone?
yes
You can give _____ to tighten a lower lid in entropion.
collodion