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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the three types of joints?
-Fixed

-Semi-moveable Joints

-Freely moveable joints (synovial)
What are the 6 types of synovial joints?
-Condyloid

-Saddle

-Gliding

-Ball and Socket

-Hinge

-Pivot
What are the joint actions at the Synovial joints?
Flexion, Extension and Hyper Extension

Horizontal Flexion and extensiion

Lateral Flexion

Elevation and Depression

Protraction and Retraction

Rotation

Circumduction

Adduction and Abduction

Dorsi-flexion and Plantar-flexion

Eversion and inversion

Pronation and supination
Name the bones of the skeleton
Cranium
Clavicle
Sternum
Scapula
Sternum
Ribs
Humerus
Spine (Vertebrae): Clavicle, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacrum, Coccyx
Humerus
Radius
Ulna
Pelvis: Ilium, Ischium and Pubis
Carpals
Metacarpals
Phalanges
Femur
Patella
Tibia
Fibula
Metatarsals
How many vertebrae in each region of the spine?
C = 7
T = 12
L = 5
S = 5
C = 4
Sternoceidomastoid
D: two headed elongated muscle
O: sternum and clavicle
I: mastoid
JX: cervical veterbrae
JA: flexion, lateral flexion and rotation of neck
Trapezius
D: large kite shaped muscle covering most of upper back.
O: C7, T1-T12 and back of skull
I: spine of scapula
JX: shoulder girdle
JA: upper fibres - elevation of shoulder girdle
middle fibres - retraction of shoulder girdle
Lower fibres -depression of shoulder girdle and the downward rotation of the scapulae
Rhomboids
D: rhomboid minor- small thin muscle
Major- small thicker muscle
Join together to form a rhombus shape on either side of the spine
O: c7 and t1-t5
I: medial border of the scapula
JX: shoulder girdle
JA: adduction of the scapula and synergistto the trapezius in relation to the shoulder girdle
Serratus anterior
D: large broad flat muscle that runs obliquely over the ribs.
O: front of ribs 1-8
I: anteriorly to the medial border of the scapula
JX: shoulder girdle
JA: protraction of the scapula
Pectoralis minor
D: small thin muscle with three points of origin
O: front of ribs 1-3
I: coracoid process of the scapula
JX: shoulder girdle
JA: assist in the deep breathing when scapulae if fixed. Synergist to the scapulae in protraction of the scapulae when rib cage is fixed
Deltoid
D:Thick, short muscle forming "shoulder pad"
O: outer third scapula, acomion process and outer third clavicle
I: laterally on top of humerus
JX: glenohumeral (shoulder) joint
JA: - all fibres involved with abduction of the are
- anterior fibres involved in flexion and assist in horizontal flexion and medial rotation of the humerus.
- posterior fibres extend, hyper extend and laterally rotate humerus
Pectoralis major
D: large fan shaped muscle covering the front of the chest and forming the front wall of the axilla (armpit)
O: clavicle, sternum and superior 6 costal catilages
I: all fines converge to form a common tendon this forms into the bicipital groove of the humerus
JX: shoulder joint
JA: flexion, horizontal flexion, medial rotation and adduction
Latissimus dorsi
D: broad, flat, triangular covering
Oat of he lower back and forming the posterior wall of the axilla.
O: via thoracic-lumbar fascia from t7-t12, all lumbar vertebrae, sacrum and illiac crest.
I: top anterior and medial part of humerus.
JX: shoulder joint
JA: prime mover in arm adduction, extension and hyper extension
- assists in medial rotation of the arm and in depression of the shoulder girdle
Rotator cuff muscle
D: A group of four short, broad muscles that work together
O: scapula
I: laterally on the head of the humerus
JX: shoulder joint
JA: all muscle - stabilisation of the shoulder joint
Subscarlularis - medial rotation
Subspinatus - abduction
Infraspinatus and Teres minor - lateral rotation
Erector spinae
D: collection of 3 different columns of muscle on each side if the spine posteriorly, which are. Thick and rectangular in the Lumbar region, changing to thinner strap like bundles in the thoracic and cervical region.
O: iliac crest and processes of vertebrae; outermost column has fibres originating from ribs.
I: spines and processes of vertebrae and ribs at hoger levels I. Column and onto base if skull.
JX: vertebral column
JA: extension and hyperextension
Quadratus lumborum
D: thick, triangular muscle
O: iliac crest and iliolumbar fascia
I: upper 4 lumbar vertebrae and lower margin of12 rib
JX: lumbar vertebrae
JA: assists in extension of the spine when working bilaterally
- lateral flexion of vertebral column with ipsilteral contraction, primarily to return to neutral spine or control movement
- keeps the spine stable when carryin heavy loads
Multifidus
Sequence of many small muscles spanning sequence of 1-3 vetebrae alon the length of the spine; fibres obliquely on all 3 planes
O: transverse process of vertebrae
I: spines of superior adjacent vertebrae
JX: 1-3 vertebral joints
JA: spinal stability though compression of vertebrae on one another
- synergist in rotation and lateral flexion working unilaterally