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63 Cards in this Set

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cell fragmentation
first, with a piston, break cell then use a centrifuge spinning at some G forces until cell seperates to the pellet and supernatant, then take supernatant and spin until you get desired organelles at increasing forces of G
light microscope
use lenses amd llight,
magnification and resolution
times greater size and shortest dist b/n 2 pts that you can see pic clearly
bring contrast microscope
light shone through specimen, low contrast, so stain it to see organelles. but also kill cell
dark contrast microscope
light object on dark backgroupd, microscope shoe through side
normarski microscope and DIC
both use special lesns that make wavelengths out of contrast, good contrast. DIC make a 3D like image
used polarized light
fluoroscene microscope
chemical absorb short wavenlenths, reflect long ones
need specific organeele to bind to a fluoroscene
good contrast
lose resolution
confocal laser scanning microscope
use a scanner on computer screen moving at vertical axis
electron microscope
super good magnification b/c of super short wavelength
TEM, SEM
both have vacuum, no moisture
use electromagnets to get a good pic to focus
can't see image directly, need electromagnet
has condenser
not alive
TEM
cut into very small sectioned to see organelles, one order of magnification better than SEM
SEM
coat in gold
see #D representation of image as a whole
looks cooler....really
how to prepare a slide
use fixation
many kinds: dehydration, rapid freezing, gluteraldeyde, osnuium tetraoside, pottasium aldehyde, boiled water, epoxy resins
gluteraldehyde
normal way
rapid freezing
best way, use l;iquid nitrogen, produce freeze timeframe image
osnium tetraoxide
bond with double bonds, good for showing phospholipid bilayer
pottasium actetate and boiled water
bad, only captures membrane, destroys other organelles
embeddingq
for TEM, to put through the grid. use plastic, epoxy resins, must get every whole
dehydration-
for e- microscope n/c no moisutre 100% solute
artefact
something produced that isn't really there i.e. nucleoid, fake not in rapid freexomg
cutting
glass cut or diamond cut for harder substances
staining
use uranium or lead, good contrast
prokaryotes
has Plasma Membrane (PM)
nor membrane bounded organelles
does sometimes fold plasma memrbane for increase compartmentization
smaller size than eukaryotes
smaller ribosomes
no nucleusm only nucleoid region
bacteria has cell wall
arhcea
blue green algea
chlorophyll
eukaryotes
membrane boundered organelles
nucleus, some double membraned
compartmentalize
nuclar pore
2 layer membrane, has pores. very selective
mitochondria
double membrane, produce ATP
has DNA, more prone to mutation
outer, inner mitochondrial membrane, christea to increase S.A.
chloroplast
double membrane
light reaction----happpens in thylakoid convert light energy to chemical energy
calvin cycle-----convert CO2 to glucose, within clloroplast
platids
only for plant cells, bacteria
leucoplast, amyloplast, chloroplst, chromoplast
leucoplast-
starch storage
tell roots where gravity is
amyloplast
???
chloroplast
gives green colour
endoplasmic reticulum
smooth and rough
smoothe is steroid suynthesis, little in plant cells
rough, embedded with ribosome ( akak attached ribosome) which produce protein, go through tunnel in the ribosome and to lumen where stuff can get added to it like a carbohydrate , since lumen continuous, gets trasported out to transport vesicle to otherwhere
flattned
Glogi apparatus
flattened sacs called cristeanea
not continuous lumen
package, modify the proteins add more molecules to it
make lysosomes
3 side cis, trans, medial. cis faces ER, trans pm
vacoule
empty bigger in plants, store stuff
creates turgor press
lysosome
break down stuff to simpler monomers for absorbtion
hydryolytic enzymes
acidic pH
has primary lysosome, but when brreaking up sth large, fuse with others form secondary
also break down own cell if sth is bad ofr dead
proxisomes
get rid of toxic substances
a lot in liver
break down fatty acid to acetyl groups
cilia and flagella
centrioles, precursor to basal body
microtuble
so much info on this i can prob get a PHD talking about it
15 nm in lumen
25 nm in diameter
a cytoskeleton
best understood out of the 3 types
going to write and essay now.............

made of dimer called tublin, alpha, beta and gamma
alpha and beta line up as 13 protofilaments in parallel
incolved in, formation of chromosome in mitosis, structure, mitotic spindle, moving of organelles in cytoplasm
beta tublin interact with GTP, forming GDP which hydrolyzes tublin, breaking it down while the other side of tublin, since it is polar and keeps of forming MT. dynamic instability
if more hydorlisize, then MT preak down and depolymerize
since polar, fast growing plus end and slow frowing minus end
turnover of MT is impt b/c it affects mitosos if dynamic instability is slowed using drugs or stabalized using taxol or cochichine of colcemid, stop mitosis, good for cancer treatment
..next flash card
MTOC
the microtublue organizing centre, in centrosome where the MT neg ends are anchored to it. and during mitosis the MT extends out to the replicated centrosome aat other end of cell to produce mitotic spindle, responsible of distr of chromosome

centrosome very impt. b/c if stopped, then restarted with drugs, can see MT growing and centrosome also makes MT polar
MT frow by addition of tublin to plus end
growth
use calcium and GTP....already talk about GTP, bind with neg end
calcuium at diff []( concntration) cause speed of growth.
[10^-8] fast
[106-3] half speed
[10^-2] no growth
centrioles
no use with MT, even with a 9=2 pattern and precursor to basal bodies why we know bc..... plants dont have it and MT don't start or emd in cemtrioles
reorganization of MT
during mitosis, MT reorganize compeltly... form mitotic spindle which is where daughter chromosome formk formed by duplicaation of MTOC and centrosome at opposite poles of mitotic spindle
centrioles and other components of centrosome duplicated in interphase, but remain together until beffining of mitosis. the 2 chromosome go to the two poles of mitotic spindle, rate of assembly of MT goes really high
kinetichore MT
attached to condensed chromosome of mitotic cells at their centromeres, formation of mitotic spindle involces selective staibliation of some MT radiating from the centrsome
attachment to kinetpcjpre stabilixes MT
polar MT
not attach at chromosome
stabalized by overlapping w/ each other in centre of cell
mitosis
as mitosis procees, condensed chromosome align on metaphase plate and sperate, whti the 2 crhomatids of each chromosome being pulled to opp side, mediated by motor proteins
in final sage of mitosis, nuclear envalope reform, dhromosome decondenses cytokinesis takes place each daughter cell only has one centrosome which makes new MT
MAPs
another way to satbalize MT other than cutting the protein of givig it inhibitors....binds to MT to increase stability...incrase stability good for certain areas like axon and demdrites
tau
protein of MAPS good to prevent alzhiemers or was it parkinsosn?
actin filaments
twisted strands of f actin, which is a polymer of g actin
2 intwinded chains
intermmediate filament
stable forms basket like structure around nuclues
exist mostly in animals
back to MT....
axon=== MT same polarity
dendrite---opp polarity
flagella
9+2 MT arrangement
MAPs.....
conbine w/ tublin dimers during polymerization, stabalize MT, may serve as MTOC, may serve as nucleation site for assmebly
some conver stability
MT inhibitors
use tazol, MT can't shorten...from bark needles
COPC
liek colchichines, a herbicide
alzhimers
tau...
brain cell die
see tangled fibers in MAP b/c uable to bind with tau, so bind with other proteins instead
eat more tuna
conchichines
help with gout, a circulatory disease that crastes pain, hypersensitivity, prevends polymerization of MT, esp the spindle, cytoskeleton, nerve cells
MT cycle in animal
easier b/c no cell wall
interpahse, prometaphse, metaphse, anaphse, tolophase
bever fever
giardia.....2 nuclues, no mitochondria
flagella and cilia
9=2 arrangement of MT have arms, each pari of MT, inte-digitate with next pair of MT
funtion by breaking down ATP- ADP, MT bends "wallk"
of course 9+2 dosen't always need to be necessaire, i.e. worms
kartogemen syndrom
human condition, due to altered MT
no cilia in nose
no sperm tails, so indertile
actin filamets do
muscle contratcion, interact with actin and mysoin, cell shape, cytoplasmic streaming, interact with MT
plants frowth of cell plate
cytokinsisi form daughter cell wall, vesicl e of futrue cell wall start from centre to outer cell, divede cytoplasm to 2 diff one, 2 cell form
intermmediate filamets
cell shape of some animal cell
position nuclusus and organells
arrage chromativ
ALS
polarity of MT
+ is faster at forming than -
capping- strenthen, chorter, capping