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21 Cards in this Set

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how many species of birds are powered by fight/flight?
9000
What is aves?
class of vertabrees.
What are some features unique to birds?
hollow bones, lightly contructed,
what does braces and struts provide for birds? (diamgram)
structural support for thin walls
what does long bones being PNEUMATIC mean?
air passes through small openings in the bones when the bird respires (breathes).
What do the air sacs in birds do to them?
lightens them, hold oxygen in body.
BIRD BONES=
HOLLOW
Which was the first bird ?
Archaeopteryx (SINGLE FEATHER)
Where did fossils of the first bird (archaeopterryx) come from?
Solnhofen Limestone
Why did the archaeopteryz lack flight muscles?
no sternum
THese two hypothsis show how what? Arboreal and Cursorial
how flight originated
Aboreal Hypotheiss was?
bird lived in trees and used feathers to glide from branch to branch. Claws used for climbing
Cursorial hypotheisis was?
they lived on the ground and were fast runners. feathers were used for insulation and arms were used to catch prey
why did the aboreal (trees) hypotheses get critized.(wings and legs),
wings and gliders are different. hind legs are those for fast runners
why did the cursorial (ground) hypotheisis get critisized? (hands, why flap?)
cant catch with feathered hand. flapping would slow down.
what are ratites?
giant flightless birds.
WHen did extiction of dinos occur?
end of cretaceous gto tertiary boundry. (KT)
What are a few possible causes of the extiction of dinos?
1. climate was too cold- couldnt hibernate
2.Climate too hot-roasted
3. poiseness plants
*4. longest runinng reason: SUPERNOVA- generated radiation.
5. Parasites (flees)
6. sea level dropped
7. Asteroid
What was maastrichtian?
the last period of the cretaceous.
What is the process?
produces the pattern/
there are 2 patterns constructed in western n. america. what were they?
1. gradual disappeareance of dinos over few million years.
2. sudden catastrophic extinction of dinos.