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88 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
parts of the ailimentary canal
Oral cavity
Pharynx
Esophagus
Stomach
Small intestine
Large intestine
Rectum
Anus
parts of the oral cavity
Teeth
tounge
salivary glands (salivary amylase)
parts of pharynx
nasopharnyx
Oropharnyx
Laryngopharnyx
Nasoparynx
above the soft palate
Pharyngeal tonsils
pharyngeal tonsils
adenoids
Lymphatic tissue
Oropharnyx
back of oral cavity
Lingual tonsils
Palatine tonsils
Lingual tonsils
in back of tongue
Lymphatic tissue
Palatine tonsils
sides at back of mouth
Ly tissue
Laryngopharnyx
below oropharnyx and larynx
Larynx
has the vocal cords
Parts of the Alimentary Canal
Mouth
Pharnyx
Esophagus
Stomach
Small Intestine
Colon
Rectum
Anus
Mouth
contains teeth, toungue, and salivary glands
Salivary glands
Parotid G.
Sublingual G.
Submandibular G.
Secrete Salivary Amylase
Esophagus
tube, 10 inches
bolus from pharnyx to stomach
Bolus
undigested food in mouth or esophagus
Cardiac Sphincter
@ end of esophagus
keeps stuff in stomach
prevents reflux
stomach
4 regions: cardiac,fundus,body,pylorus
4 types of gland cells mucous, parietal, chief, enteroendocrine
Begins digest proteins
continues digest starch
regions of the stomach
cardiac, fundus,body, pylorus
types of glands in stomach
mucous
parietal
chief,
enteroendocrine
Goblet cells
make mucous throughout the digestive system
in lining (epithelium)
Parietal cells
secrete HCl
Chief cells
secrete pepsinogen
enteroendocrine cells
Secrete Gastrin
Pyloric Valve
Sphincter
@ end of stomach
regulates flow of chyme into duodenum
chyme
partly digested food in the ailimentary canal
regions of the small intestine
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
duodenum
1st section
10 inches right to left
recieves from common bile duct (gallbladder) and pancreatic duct
protein digestion
Pancreas
in mesentary between stomach and duodenum
Secretes zymogen granules
produces hmns (insulin)
produces bicarbonate to neutralise chyme
Jejunum
8'
2nd part small intestine
duodenum to ileum
Ileum
12'
3rd part small intestine
jejunum to colon
ileocecal valve
@ end of ileum, leads to duodenum
regulates flow of material into the colon
Diameter of small intestine
1 inch
Diameter of colon
2.5 inches
Structures in sm. intestine that increase surface area
Plicae circulares
villi
Microvilli
plicae circulares
permanent transverse folds in small intestine wall
increase surface area 3X
Villi
microscopic fingerlike projections of intestinal mucosa into sm. intestine opening
increase surface area by 30X
Micro villi
hairlike projections from surface of mucosal cells
increases surface area 600X
Intestinal glands
base of villi
generate new Mucosal Cells to replace every 3 days
Brunner's Glands
Duodenum mostly
bicarbinate solutions secreters
Goblet Cells
secrete mucous
dispersed through epithelium layer of mucosal layer
protect intestional wall
Structural Differences of the colon
2.5 inches diameter, 5 feet long
6 regions
longitudinal muscles in 2 bands (Tenia coli)
Haustra and epiploic appendages
No villi or microvilli
changing fluid level in fecal matter
Regions of the colon
cecum
ascending colon
transverse colon
descending colon
sigmoid colon
rectum
cecum
1st section of colon
just past ileocecal valve
has vermiform apendix
vermiform apendix
apendix
attaches to cecum
Sigmoid colon
end of colon just before the rectum
Ascending colon
from cecum to transverse
fecal material is fluid
Transverse colon
from ascending to descending
fecal matter is mush
Desending colon
from transverse to sigmoid
fecal matter is semi solid
Primary function of colon
absorption of water
secondary functions of colon
synthesis of Vitamin K
and some B-vitamins
Fermentation of Cellulose
Tenia Coli
2 narrow bands of longitudinal muscles in colon wall
provide the shortening part of haustrations
allow more expansion for fecal matter to pass
Haustra
pouches along the colon
Epiploic Appendages
sacks of fat tissue attached to the lining of the colon
can twist, cutting off their blood supply and causing inflamation and necrosis
Constipation
when fecal matter is held too long in the colon and becomes too dry
Rectum
Terminal protion of the colon
Sigmoid colon to anus
Streach receptors signal need to void whch reflexively opens teh internal anal sphincter
Internal anal sphincter
reflexively opens when signaled by CNS (when streach receptors signal capacity)
Smooth muscle
not under conscious control
External anal sphincter
skeletal muscle
contious control
Salivary glands
secrete saliva
parotid, sublingual, submandibular
Secretions in saliva
Salivary amylase
Lysozome
Mucin
IgA antibodies
Growth factor
Electrolytes
Salivary Amylase
Begins starch digestion
Lysosome
Antibacterial Agent
released by salivary glands
Mucin
glycoprotein
Lubricates food
released by salivary glands
Growth factor
released in saliva
aids in woulnd healing
Liver
digestive and post digestive functions
convert glucose to glycogen and vise versa
make glucose from amino acids and glycerol
synthesize cholesterol and triglycerides
synthesize most plasma proteins (exc. G.G.)
Detoxify alcohol, drugs, and toxins
breakdown worn out RBC
Memeglobin to bilirubin
bilirubin
from broken down hemoglobin
part of bile
bacteria convert into urobiliinogen
some back into bd -> urine yellow
rest in feces - brown
bile
waste from Liver
contains: bile salts, bilirubin, cholesterol, phospholipids,inorganic ions (Na, K, etc.) and 97.5% water
Gallbladder
bile storage
common bile duct to duodenum
release when cck stimulates it
Layers of ailimentary canal wall
mucosa
submucosa
Muscularis (circular and logitudinal)
Serosa
Mucosa
innermost layer
collumnar epithelium
lamina propria
muscularis mucosa
Lamina propria
Ct layer in mucosa
bv and ly cap. (lacteals)
Muscularis mucosa
thin muscle layer in mucosa
Lacteals
Ly. cap in lamina propria
Submucosa
outside of mucosa
bv
lyv
Autonomic nv
submucosal plexus
Muscularis
muscle layer
2-3 layers smooth musc.
inner circular and outher longitudinal
oblique in stomach, only
myenteric plexus
Serosa
serous layer of gut
visceral pleura or visceral peritoneum
HCl
Hydrocloric Acid
secrete by parietal Cells
Acid for pepsin action
pepsinogen to pepsin
denature prot
kills bact
Pepsinogen
secrete by Chief cells
HCl make into pepsin
Pepsin
endopeptidase in stomach
endopeptidase
breaks up polypeptides
Intrinsic factor
secrete parietal cells
Vitamin B-12 absorpiton
Gastrin
from Enteroendocrine cells
into bd
stim gastric activity
Mucus
from goblet cells
lubricates stomach contents and protects stomach from Gastric juices
Tripsin
endopeptidase
continues digestion from pepsin
secreted inactively from pancreas
tripsinogen
activated in sm. int.
chymotripsin
endopeptidase
continues digestion from pepsin
secreted inactively from pancreas
chymotripsinogen
activated in sm. int.
Carboxypeptidase
peptide digestion @ caboxy end of chain
1 a.a. @ time
from pancreas
Pancreatic lipase
Digests triglycerides into f.a., glycerol, & monoglycerides
from pancreas
Pancreatic Amylase
breaks up starch into disaccharides of glucose (maltose)
disaccharide
any sugar w/ 2 sugar units bonded together