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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
alimentary canal
is like the hole in a doughnut
oral cavity
the beginning of the alimentary canal; the area where teeth pulverize ingested food while it is softened and partly digested by salivary gland secretions
fibromuscular pharynx; the area of the throat at the back of the mouth that connects the esophagus with the laryngharynx
moves the bolus along to the stomach; the tubing that takes food from the pharynx to the stomach by way of peristaltic muscular contractions
the area of the body where bolus is treated to mechanical and chemical digestion
small intestine
highly coiled region of the digestive system that bolus is moved into after being digested in the stomach; more enzymatic and mechanical digestion occures

small molecular nutrients are extracted from the bolus and absorbed by lining cells and then transferred to capillaries
produces bile that is used in digestion; bile is transferred from the liver to the gall bladder before going into a duct into the duodenum

nutrients absorbed throughout the tract are transported to the liver by the hepatic portal system for processing and distribution to the body's cells
gall bladder
a small sack connected to the liver that stores bile until it CCK is released causing the gall bladder to retract and bile to proceed into the duodenum
bile ducts
how the bile goes from the gall bladder to the duodenum
large intestine
mainly concerned with absorption of water, minerals, and certain vitamins
hepatic portal system
the way that nutrients absorbed by the digestive tract are transported to the liver for processing and distribution to the body's cells
the act of eating
the act of swallowing
anterior half of the mouth
includes teeth, muscular tongue and related extrinsic muscles, salivary glands, hard (bony) palate, and buccinartor muscle in the cheek wall

concerned with wetting, macerating, and pulverizing ingested material
mucous glands of the mouth
thousands located in the stratified squamous-lined mucose of the mouth assist in wetting, macerating, and pulverizing ingested material
salivary glands
secretions soften and partly digest ingested food
aids in mechanical manipulation of ingested food and literally flips the food into the fibromuscular pharynx during swallowing
the partly digested ingested food that has already passed through the mouth and over the tongue
multiple, microscopically-towering papillae are on the surface of the toungue and forms an abrasive surface for mechanical digestion
temporomandibular joints
permit a fairly wide range of lower jaw motion and mouth opening (35-50mm in adults)
posterior half of the mouth
includes: soft (muscular) palate, tongue, and tonsils between the muscular arches and is concerned with immune defense and propelling the mechanically treated food into the pharynx
Sense receptors of the mouth
a.k.a. taste buds are buried among the papillae on the tongue surface and are responsive to chemical stimuli dissolved in the saliva

arranged in a pattern reflecting specific sensitivity to molecular variations (bitter, sour, salt, and sweet tastes)
salivary glands
secrete a mixed water/mucus, enzyme-containing fluid into the mouth during periods of eating (or anticipated eating; one of the reasons why ones mouth will water before one throws up)
msucle (myoepithelial) cells
specilized myopithelial cells at the base of salivary glands stimulate secretion into the ducts following stimulation by autonomic nerves.
sublingual glands
located under the tongue on the floor of the mouth; smallest of the three paired glands of the mouth;
submandibular gland
opens on the floor of the mouth under the tongue
parotid gland
the largest of the mouth glands; sends its duct across the massester muscle, through the cheek and into the oral cavity opposite the upper 2nd molar tooth
masselter muscle
the muscle of mastication or eating
the lower jaw