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105 Cards in this Set

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The mouth to the anus makes up what structure of the body?
The Alimentary Canal or GI Tract (gastrointestinal)
The center of it is called the Lumen
What are the 4 functions of the Alimentary Canal?
Ingestion
Digestion
Absorption
Defacation
It's eating and processing
What is ingestion?
Taking in of food
It's eating
What is digestion?
The breaking up of food
It's processing
What is absorption?
The passage of small molecules into cells, blood and lymph.
Getting the nutrients
What are the 3 processes of the Alimentary Canal?
Motility
Secretion
Membrane Transport
what it does
What is motility?
Muscular contractions that break up food and propel it through the canal.
movement
What is secretion?
The production and release of materials used outside of cells.
extracellular
What is membrane transport?
Mechanisms for moving materials across cells.
What are the three sections of the alimentary canal MUCOSA?
Epithelium
Lamina Propria
Muscularis Mucosae
Describe the Epithelium of the GI Tract Mucosa.
The layer that is next to the food.
Describe the Lamina Propria of the GI tract mucosa.
The middle layer of the mucosa. It is made up of areolar connective tissue.
Describe the muscularis mucosae of the GI tract mucosa.
A thin layer of smooth muscle.
What is the submucosa of the GI tract?
A layer of areolar connective tissue and nerves that lies beneath the mucosa.
Describe the muscuarlis externa of the GI tract.
Deep to the submucosa, this is a layer of muscles to move food.
What type of muscles are in the muscularis externa of the GI tract?
Skeletal in the mouth, pharynx and upper esophagus for voluntary swallowing. Smooth and involuntary everywhere else.
How many and what kind of layers of muscularis externa are there?
Two layers in all areas except the stomach. The outer layer is longintudinal, the inner layer is circular. In the stomach, the inner most layer is oblique.
What is the serosal membrane that lines the outside of the GI tract parts that suspend in the abdominopelvic cavity?
Peritoneum
What is Visceral Peritoneum?
Peritoneum that lines the external surfaces of most of the digestive organs.
What is the parietal peritoneum?
The peritoneum that lines the walls of the abdominopelvic cavity.
What is the peritoneal cavity?
The space between the parietal and visceral portions of the peritoneum.
What is the mesentery?
Folds associated with the small intestine.
What is the fold over the intestines?
The Greater Omentum
Like an apron
What is the lesser omentum?
The fold between the stomach, duodenum and liver.
it's between structures
What are the 6 main structures of the mouth?
Tongue
Lips
Cheeks
teeth
hard and soft palate
What is the space called that is between the cheek/lips and teeth/gums?
Vestibule
it's fancy
What is the space called that extends from the vestibule to the fauces?
The Oral Cavity
What are the fauces?
The arcs on either side of the uvula that lead to the pharynx.
What are the two main digestive functions of the mouth?
1. Breaks up food.
2. Starts chemical digestion.
The throat region of the GI tract is called what?
Pharynx
What GI tract structure transports food to stomach?
Esophagus
What is the hole or space inside the alimentary canal called?
Lumen
What are the four anatomical regions of the stomach?
Cardia (toward the heart)
Fundus (the top)
Body (the main section)
Pylorus (the part heading into the duodenum)
What are the 4 important products produced by the stomach?
Mucus
Hydrochloric Acid
Pepsin
Intrinsic Factor
What is the purpose of the mucus in the stomach?
Protects the structure against the action of acid and enzymes which are used to digest food.
What is the purpose of Hydrochloric Acid in the stomach?
Helps to liquify food and kill bacteria
What is the purpose of Pepsin?
Starts digestion of protein.
What is the purpose of Intrinsic Factor in the stomach?
needed for the absorption of vitamin B12.
What are the three main functions of the stomach?
1. Stores food and water
2. Aids in mechanical and chemical digestion of food. Starts chemical digestion of proteins and reduces particle size
3. Absorbs water among other things.
What is the approximate length of the small intestine?
6 feet in a living person.
What is the advantage to having folds or plicae, villi and microvilli in the small intestine?
Increases surface area for absorption of nutrients.
What are the three sections of the small intestine - in proximal to distal order?
Duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum
What is the name of the blind sac at the start of the large intestine?
Cecum
What is the fingure-like projection dangling from the cecum?
Veriform Appendix
What are the four main sections of the colon?
1. Ascending
2. Transverse
3. Descending
4. Sigmoid
What are the last two sections of the alimentary canal after the four main sections of the colon?
Rectum
Anus
Where do hemorroidal veins reside?
In the rectum.
Which part of the colon is "S" shaped?
Sigmoid.
What is the term for a muscle section that controls movement from one region to another?
Sphincter
What are the two sphincters called in the GI tract region proximal to the stomach?
1. Upper esophageal sphincter
(throat to esophagus)
2. Lower esophageal sphincter
(esophagus to stomach)
Where is the Pyloric Sphincter located and what does it do?
Pylorus region of the stomach to the duodenum. Lets food into small intestine at an appropriate rate.
What is the sphincter of Oddi?
Controls the entry of bile and pancreatic juice into the duodenum.
What is another name for the Sphincter of Oddi?
Hepatopancreatic Sphincter.
What is the location and function of the Illeocecal Valve?
It is the sphincter from the small intestine to the large intestine. It keeps bacteria from the large intestine from getting into the small intestine.
What is the digestive function of the liver?
Produce bile which aids in fat digestion.
What is the digestive function of the gall bladder?
Stores bile (from the liver) until it is needed for fat digestion.
What is the digestive function of the pancreas and what are its three regions?
Produces digestive enzymes in groups of cells called acini.
Has head, body and tail.
What is the digestive function of the tongue and what is it made of?
Has papilla with taste buds sensitive to sweet, salty, sour bitter and umami. Used in chewing and moving food around. Made of skeletal muscle covered by a mucous membrane.
What non-digestive function does the tongue serve?
Assists in speaking -- language
What is the hardest substance in the human body?
Enamel
What is the soft section of the tooth just below the surface of the enamel?
Dentin
Inside the tooth (beneath the dentin layer) with the nerves and blood vessels is called what?
The pulp
What are the three parts of a tooth and in what region do they normally reside?
Crown (all parts above the gum)
Neck (in the gum region)
Roots (hold tooth in the jaw)
What is another name for baby teeth?
Deciduous teeth
What are two other names for the baby or deciduous teeth?
Milk teeth
Primary teeth
How many deciduous teeth are normally present in a child? (when all have come in)
20
Name the subdivisions the 20 deciduous teeth.
8 incisors (in front)
4 canine (cuspid)
8 molars (called pre-molars in adults)
How many permanent or secondary teeth are there?
32 total
Name the subdivisions of the permanent teeth.
8 incisors
4 canines
8 premolars (bicuspid)
12 molars including wisdom teeth
The salivary glands produce approximately how much saliva per day?
1.5 quarts
What are the 4 main functions of saliva?
1. Keeps mouth moist
2. Lubricates food
3. Helps kill bacteria
4. begins starch digestion with the enzyme salivary amylase.
The three pairs of major salivary glands are located where and how does the saliva get to the mouth?
They are located outside of the mouth and saliva is transported by ducts into the mouth.
What are the three pairs of major salivary glands?
Parotid
Submandibular
Sublingual
Which glands are located in front of the ears?
Parotid
Where are the submandibular glands and where do they open?
Beneath the base of the tongue with ducts opening to the side of the lingual frenulum.
What is the function of the lingual freneulum?
Restrict extreme movements of the tongue.
Where are the sublingual glands and where are their duct openings.
Superior to the submandibular glands with numerous small ducts opening into the floor of the mouth.
What are the 6 associated structures of the digestive system?
1. Liver
2. Gall bladder
3. Pancreas
4. Tongue
5. Teeth
6. Salivary Glands
Enzymes increase the * without being *
Rate of reaction
Used up
What is Hydrolysis?
Insertion of water and breaking of chemical bonds.
What is a substrate?
Material acted on by an enzyme
Salivary Amylase is produced by * and acts on *
Salivary Glands
Carbohydrates
Pancreatic Amylase is produced by * and acts on *
Pancreas
Carbohydrates
Pepsin is produced by * and acts on *
Stomach
Proteins
Lipase is produced by * and acts on *
Pancreas (and others)
Fat
Trypsin is produced by * and acts on *
Pancreas
Proteins
RNAase and DNAase are produced by * and acts on *
Pancreas
Nucleic Acids
Carbohydrates (starches and sugars) are broken down and absorbed as *
Simple sugars
Proteins are absorbed as what three different forms?
1. Amino Acids
2. Dipeptides
3. Tripeptides
What are the most common type of fats in the diet?
Triglycerides
Triglycerides are broken down, absorbed into the cells of * and reassembled into Triglycerides and form * that have proteins around them.
Villus
Chylomicrons
Water is absorbed by *
Osmosis
Regulation of Digestion involves what two systems?
Nervous System
Hormones from the Endocrine System
What are the three stages of gastric function regulation?
1. Cephalic
2. Gastric
3. Intestinal
What is the Cephalic Stage of Gastric Function Regulation?
Sight, smell, taste or thought of food which stiumulates gastric secretion.
What happens in the Gastric Phase of gastric function regulation?
Food in the stomach stimulates gastric secretions - up to 2/3 of it.
What is the intestinal phase of the gastric function regulation?
Chyme in the duodenum stimulates digestion and slows the release of chyme into the intestine -- prevents overloading.
Gastrin is produced in * and released by * and stimulates *
Stomach
Distention and Peptides
Gastric juice secretion
CCK is produced * and released by *.
Duodenum
Fat in the duodenum
CCK causes what three actions to happen?
1. Contracts gallbladder
2. Stimulates release of digestive enzymes.
3. Relaxes the Sphincter of Oddi
Secretin is produced * and released by * and causes secretion of *
Duodenum
Acid in duodenum
Bicarbonate secretion from pacreatic ducts, Brunner's glands and the liver
What are the three types of Motility?
1. Peristalsis
2. Segmentation
3. Mass Movements
Describe peristalsis.
A wave of contraction that propels the contents along the GI tract.
Describe SEGMENTATION (in terms of motility)
Contractions that mix the intestinal contents without moving them along the tract.
Describe Mass Movements--in terms of motility.
Move material for longer distances in the colon.