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78 Cards in this Set

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Peritoneum
-membrane lining the abdominal cavity
-closed sac, except for continues to female fallopian tubes
Development of Peritoneum
During embryonic development abdominal organs invaginate the parietal sac, creating a double layer of membrane;
-visceral peritoneum surrounds individual organs
-parietal peritoneum forms wall of sac lining actual abdomen.
visceral peritoneum
-continuous with serosa;
-surrounds each organ/structure of the digestive system;
water balloon peritoneum
during development, organs migrate into the parietal sac like a fist going into the dorsal aspect of a water balloon. the layer right next to the fist is visceral, outer is parietal.
parietal peritoneum
layer of peritoneum that lines the inner surfaces of body wall;
it's the wall of the sac lining the abdomen.
retroperitoneal
the area behind the kidneys
histological layers of GI tract
mucosa
muscularis mucosa
submucosa
muscularis externa
serosa/adventitia
mucosa
innermost layer of tract; lines the lumen; epithelial tissue
muscularis mucosa
-deep to mucosal layer (if you're inside the GI tract).
Submucosa
Layer deep to the muscularis mucosa; entrypoint of arteries, veins, and lymphatic vessels.
-"Areolar tissue"
Muscularis externa
REAL muscular layer
-strong/smooth muscle, two arrangements:
-Circular (innermost layer)
-Longitudinal (outer layer)
*(mechanical processing, propulsion of material along tract)
Serosa/adventitia
Serosa - clear tissue outermost layer.
Adventitia - just under serosa; connective tissue, attatches tract to adjacent structures.
mesentery
extreme thickening of adventitial layer; anchors contents of the abdomen to the abdominal wall
Digestive System Components (General)
-Oral Cavity
-Pharynx
-Esophagus
-Abdominal cavity
-Accesory organs
Contents of the Abdominal Cavity
-Peritoneum
-Stomach
-Small intestine
-Large intestine (aka Colon)
-Anus
Accesory Digestive Organs
-Liver
-Gall bladder
Components of Oral Cavity
-teeth
-palate
-tongue
-salivary glands
teeth
20 deciduous (baby)
32 permanent
palate
roof of the mouth
-hard palate
-soft palate
hard palate
bony portion of the palate
-formed by horizontal plates of palatine bones (posterior) palatine processes of maxillary bone (anterior).
soft palate
muscular portion of the palate;
-uvula sits at center.
-membranous soft tissue
uvula
located at center of the soft palate
tongue
structure, location, function
structure: muscular
location: floor of oral cavity
function: chew, swallow, talk, taste.
salivary glands
sublingual
submandibular
parotid
sublingual gland
-salivary gland located beneath tongue;
-several ducts open superiorly into oral cavity.
-innervated by parasympathetic C.N. VII
submandibular gland
salivary gland deep to mandible;; opens into oral cavity via submandibular duct
parotid gland
beneath skin between mandible/sternocleidomastoid; opens into oral cavity opposite 2nd upper molar via parotid duct; innervated by parasympathetic C.N. IX
Lesion of C.N. XII
protruded tongue will deviate to side of brain where lesion is
palatoglossal arch
muscular arches extending laterally from soft palate (uvula) to base of tongue.
palatopharyngeal arches
just posterior to palatoglossal arches.
-extend from soft palate to side of pharynx.
fauces
entryway /passageway between oral cavity and pharynx formed by palatopharyngeal/glossal arches.


Book:
opening to oropharynx; framed by posterior margin of soft palate, uvula, palatopharyngeal arches, and base of tongue.
palatine tonsils
located between palatopharyngeal/glossal arches.
pharynx
located between oral cavity and esophagus;
-nasal portions (above soft palate)
-oral portions (below soft palate)
esophagus
-begins directly behind trachea
-muscular tube extending from pharynx to stomach; perices diaphragm to enter abdominal cavity.
STOMACH
shape of an expanded J
lesser curvature
medial surface of stomach; app. 10 cm
greater curvature
lateral side of stomach; app. 40 cm
cardia
-esophagus contacts medial stomach.
-closest to heart, thus cardia.
a sphincter keeps contents down
fundus
-region of stomach superior to gastroesophageal junction.
-contacts inferior/posterior surface of diaphragm.
body
"The big part" (Doc Cullinan)
Area between fundus and curve of J.
Pylorus
curve of the J; terminal portion of stomach and end. Pyloric sphincter divides it from the duodenum.
Pyloric sphincter
regulates release of chyme from pyloris into duodenum
rugae
-folds/wrinkles in the lining of the stomach;
-exaggerated plica, increase absorbance area of stomach.
-allow stomach to expand during eating.
greater omentum
fat-embedded connective tissue that hangs over the entire abdominal intestine from the greater curvature.
like a big fat apron.
greater omentum
fat-embedded connective tissue that hangs over the entire abdominal intestine from the greater curvature.
like a big fat apron.
greater omentum
fat-embedded connective tissue that hangs over the entire abdominal intestine from the greater curvature.
like a big fat apron.
lesser omentum
small pocket of fatty connective tissue extending between the lesser curvature of stomach and liver
peritonitis
infection of the layer between the visceral and parietal peritoneum
diaphragm hiatus
entrypoint of esophagus into the abdominal cavity through the diaphragm.
small intestine
extends from stomach to cecum (15-25')
3 divisions: duodenum, jejunum, ileum.
-Contains circular folds for increased surface area for absorption/secretion.
-Secretes mucus, enzymes for digestion; absorbs nutrients.
bolus
small oval mass of food :) hahahaha
plica circularis
series of transverse folds on the mucosa surface that increase its area for absorption. Each plica (the whole mucosa really) has a forest of villi, which in turn have microvilli.
Villi
projections of the mucosa; also on plica.
Duodenum
First section of the small intestine
Jejunum
2nd portion of the small intestine
Ileum
last portion of the small intestine; ends at iliocecal valve before entry to cecum.
duodenal ampulla
-muscular chamber where common bile duct and pancreatic duct converge so their contents can enter duodenal lumen;
-opens into luman at duodenal papilla
large intestine
extends from ileum of small intestine to anus.
3 portions: cecum, colon, rectum.
haustra
large sacculations of the large intestine; formed by contractions of tenia coli
tenia coli
longitudinal muscles of the large intestine; help in contraction and constriction.
tenia coli
longitudinal muscles of the large intestine; help in contraction and constriction.
epiploic appendages
fat tags
suspended from colon.
terminal ilium
adjacent to the ilialcecal sphincter, which opens into the cecum.
cecum
first portion of the large intestine
vermiform appendix
just off the cecum; inferior; lymphatic function
ascending colon
portion of large intestine extending from cecum to liver area
hepatic flexure
aka RIGHT COLIC FLEXURE
-colon turns to the left (of patient)
-Marks the end of the ascending colon, the start of the transverse colon.
transverse colon
extends from the right colic flexure (hepatic flexure) to the left colic flexure (splenic)
descending colon
from left colic (splenic) flexure to sigmoid colon.
sigmoid colon
short distance from distal descending colon's end to the turn into the anus.
rectum
last portion of the digestive tract and large intestine; contains the anus
anus
constricted end of dig. tract.
sphincter muscles surround, to elimate contacts. Voluntary.
Liver
-largest visceral organ;
-right upper quadrant of abdomen;
Left Liver Lobe
located next to lesser omentum (fatty pocket between liver and stomach)
right liver lobe
bigger than left
coronary ligament
Ligament running on top of liver, attaches it to diaphragm
falciform ligament
-Runs along anterior liver wall; holds it to the wall;
-divides the liver into right/left lobes.
Liver lobules
-basic functional units of the liver.