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122 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
palate
separation between oral cavity and nasal cavity
soft palate
boneless posterior portion
hard palate
bone-supported anterior portion
uvula
v-shaped structure extending the posterior portion of the soft palate, helping direct food into the throat.
pharynx
(throat) allows for passage of food from mouth to esophagus, through swallowing.
esophagus
25 cm tube that extends from pharynx to stomach
stomach
J-shaped organ that mixes and stores food through the secretion of chemicals for digestion
cardia
opening of esophagus to stomach
fundus
domed, uppermost portion of the stomach. central portion of the stomach
pylorus
connection between the stomach and the small intestine
antrum
portion of the pylorus that connects to the stomach body
pyloric sphincter
ring of muscle that protects the opening between the duodenum and the stomach
small intestines
a 20 ft canal extending from the pyloric sphincter and extending to the large intestines.
jejunum
second portion of the small intestines. about 8 feet.
ileum
third portion of the small intestine, around 11 feet, which connects to the large intestine
large intestine
wider canal, 5 foot length, connects the ileum to the anus
cecum
u-shaped pouch that is the first portion of the large intestine
colon
next portion of the large intestine, has 4 parts.
ascending colon
travels upward from the cecum to the underside of the liver.
transverse colon
passes horizontally from right to left towards the spleen
descending colon
travels down the left side of the abdominal cavity to the sigmoid colon
sigmoid colon
continues from the descending colon above and joins the rectum below
rectum
last division of the large intestines, ends at the anus
anus
lower opening of the digestive tract. controlled by two anal sphincter muscles.
salivary glands
produce saliva which flows into the mouth
liver
secretes bile to break down fat. produces bilirubin through the destruction of hemoglobin. removes excess glucose from the bloodstream to store as glycogen. removes poisons from the blood.
bile ducts
passageways that carry bile
hepatic duct
carries bile from the liver
cystic duct
carries bile from the gallbladder
common bile duct
carries bile to the duodenum
gallbladder
pear-shaped sac under the liver that stores and concentrates bile. contracts when bile is needed to force bile out of cystic duct, into common bile duct, which empties into the duodenum.
pancreas
feather-shaped organ located behind the stomach. produces pancreatic juices to aid in digestion, and secretes insulin for carbohydrate metabolism.
peritoneum
lining of the abdominal cavities
appendix
small pouch attached to the secum with no known digestive function.
antr/o
antrum
cec/o
cecum
cheil/o
lip
cholangi/o
bile duct
chol/e
gall, bile
choledoch/o
common bile duct
col/o
colon
diverticul/o
diverticulum
enter/o
intestine, usually small.
gastr/o
stomach
gingiv/o
gums
gloss/o lingu/o
tongue
or/o, stomat/o
mouth
palat/o
palate
pancreat/o
pancreas
appendicitis
inflammation of the appendix
cholangioma
bile duct tumor
cholecystitis
gallbladder inflammation
choledocholithiasis
stones in the common bile duct
diverticulitus
inflammation of the diverticulum
diverticulosis
condition of having diverticula
dysphagia
difficulty swallowing
esophagitis
esophageal inflammation
gastritis
stomach inflammation
gastroenteritis
stomach and intestine inflammation
gingivitis
gum inflammation
hepatitis
liver inflammation
hepatoma
liver tumor
pancreatitis
pancreatic inflammation
peritonitis
inflammation of the peritonium
polyposis
condition of having multiple polyps
sialolith
salivary gland stone
uvulitis
uvula inflammation
apthous ulcers
(canker sores, stomatitis) recurrent, blister-like sores that break and form lesion on the oral mucous membranes. may be associated with stress, foods or fever.
herpes labialis
(cold sores, fever blisters) blister-like sores caused by the herpes simplex virus that occur on the lips and nearby tissues.
cleft lip
congenital defect resulting in a deep fissure of the lip running upward toward the nose.
cleft palate
congenital fissure of the palate that involes the hard palate and/or soft palate and upper lip
bruxism
involuntary teeth grinding, usually at night, associated with stress or tension
dental caries (tooth decay)
infectious disease that destroys the enamel and dentin of the tooth.
periodontal disease
inflammation of the tissue that surround and support teeth.
plaque
bacteria containing soft deposits that build up on the teeth and can lead to dental caries or periodontal disease.
gingivitis
gum inflammation. the earliest stage of periodontal disease.
halitosis
bad breath caused by dental disease or gastrointestinal disease
temporomandibular disorders (TMJ, TMD)
a group of complex systems including pain, headache or difficulty chewing relating to malfunction of the temporomandibular joint.
gastroesophogeal reflux disease
upward flow of stomach acid into the esophagus
esophogeal varicies
enlarged and swollen veins at the distal end of the esophagus. severe bleeding can occur if these rupture.
hiatal hernia
protrusion of part of the stomach through the esophogeal sphincter in the diaphragm.
gastritis
inflammation of the stomach
gastroenteritis
inflammation of the stomach and intestines.
duodenal ulcer
peptic ulcers that occur in the upper part of the small intestine.
gastric ulcer
peptic ulcers that occur in the stomach.
perforating ulcer
erosion through the entire thickness of the organ wall
dyspepsia
indigestion. impairment of digestion
emesis
vomiting. expulsion of stomach contents through the mouth
hematesis
vomiting blood
hyperemesis
excessive vomitting
nausea
sensation of having the need to vomit
regurgitation
the return of swallowed food into the mouth
colorectal cancer
common form of GI cancer that typically manifests as polyps in the colon
polyp
tumor-like extension of the mucous membrane that is typically benign
adhesion
growing together of two surfaces that are normally separated
ileus
obstruction of the intestine caused by peristalsis
intussusception
telescoping of one part of the intestine into the immediately adjacent body structure.
IBS
disorder of the motility of the entire GI tract
Crohn Disease
chronic autoimmune disorder involving the GI tract most commonly involving thickening of the walls of the ileum, colon, or both.
ulcerative colitis
inflammation of the colon with formation of ulcers.
volvulus
twisting of the intestine on itself causing obstruction.
bowel incontinence
inability to control the excretion of bowel contents.
constipation
decreased frequency of the passage of stool, or difficulty passing hard, dry stools.
diarrhea
abnormal frequency of loose, water stools which can result in dehydration.
hemorrhoids
enlarged veins in or near the rectum that can cause bleeding or pain.
melena
the passage of black stools containing digested blood
cirrhosis
progressive degenerative disease of the liver resulting in hepatic failure
hepatomegaly
enlargement of the liver
jaundice
yellow discoloration of the skin, caused by greater than normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood
hepatitis
inflammation of the liver usually caused by a virus or toxic substances.
anorexia
lack or loss of apetite
anorexia nervosa
disorder characterized by a prolonged refusal to eat with resulting emaciation from an abnormal fear of becoming heavy
bulimia nervosa
disorder characterized by binging and purging
dehydration
fluid depletion.
malnutrition
lack of proper food or nutrients in the body
pica
eating disorder in which there is a consistent eating of non-nutritional substances, such as clay. associated with pregnancy
obesity
excess accumulation of fat in the body.
acid blockers
block the effect of histamine, which signals the stomach to produce acid
antiemetic
prevents or relieves nausea/vomiting
emetic
produces vomiting
laxatives
produce bowel movements
oral rehydration therapy
a solution of electrolytes is given to counteract dehydration.