Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/86

Click to flip

86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
rugae
longitudinal folds when stomach is empty
hepatic aretery and hepatic portal vein enter the liver at _______
porta hepatis and the common hepatic duct
What is absorption?
is the movement of organic substrates electrolytes, across the digestive epithlium and inot the interstital fluid
What are the two essential ingredients of metabolic reactions?
1. oxygen
2. organic molecules that can be broken down by intracellular enzymes.
gastroesophageal sphincter
keeps food in stomach
hepatocytes
liver cells
What are the components of the Digestive tract (gastrointestinal)?
mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine.
falciform ligament
separate the right and left lobes and suspends the liver from the diaphragm and anterior abdominal wall
ascites
accumulation of fluid
what does bile do
break up fats inot tiny particles
What is excretion?
removal of waste products from body fluids.
lacteal
modified lymphatic capillary inside the villi
segmentation
cycles of contraction
cirrhosis
progressive chromic inflammation of the liver that typically results from chronic alcoholism...liver becomes fibrous and its activity is depressed
What is secretion?
release of water, acids, enzymes, buffers, and salts, by the epithelium of the digestie tract and by glandular organs
HVB and HVA
B is transmitted via blood
A is transmitted via feces
chyme
creamy paste formed in the stomach
What does the Mucosal barrier do?
protect stomach
1. produce rich bicarbonate mucus 2. cells joined by tight junction 3. renewsed 3to 6 days
What is the ejection of materials from the digestive tract?
defecation which eliminates materials as feces.
cephalic phase
brain thinks about it which kicks in all the cells to become active
defensins
respond to injury by producing antimicrobial peptids
secretin is relased by intestinal cells exposed to
fatty chyme which tell to secret bicorbonate rich juice that lacks bile salts
Ingestion
active process involving conscious choiece and decision making
enterohepatic circulation
bile salts are 1. reabsorbed into blood 2. returned to liver 3. resecreted in newly formed bile
plaque
organic material become calcified
kupffer cells
star shaped recticuloendotheilial cells primary job of the liver (remove debris.
digestion?
chemical breakdown of food into small organic fragments suitbale for absorption
what does the liver do? 6 things?
1. remove toxin 2. store glucose, vit. and minerals 3. process proteins 4. turn nitrogen to ammonium to urea 5 process hemoglobin to bilrubin 6. processing bile salts which goes into intestine
pyloric
lowest part of the stomach goes inot sm. intestine
bile leave the liver through _________ which travels downward toward the duodenum.
common hepatic duct
What role does the lining of the digestive tract play?
safeguards against
1. corrosive effects of digestive acids
2. mechanical stresses
3. bacteria
the sm. intestine consist of
dudodenum, jejunum, ileum
omenta
yellow helps to hold stomach to digestive organs
what causes ulcers
helicobacter pylori bacteria which destroys epithelium layer
what are the 4 layers of the digestive tract?
mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa
gastric phase
grind food, fat stays for awhile while sugars burn up quickly
gingivitis
breakdown of epithelial cells in the gum
urobilinogen
gives feces a brown color
what is ingestion?
active process involving conscious choice and decision making
intestinal phase
where most of the absorption happens and defecation occurs
permanent transverse folds increases surface area
plicae
paneth cells
secrete lyozyomes which kill bacteria
mechanical processing?
physical manipulation and distortion that makes materials easier to propel.
duodenial glands
secrete sodium bicarbonate
peritonitis
inflammation of peritoneal membrane (appendix)
bilirubin
waste product of the heme of hemoglobin
sublingual
watery acts as buffer and lubricant at the base of the mouth
What are the 3 muscle layer in the stomach to allow churning?
cardia, longitudinal, circular
submandibular
fuffer and glycoprotein
3 things portal triad made of
hepatic artery, hepatic portal vien, and bile duct
Chief cells
(zymogenic) produce pepsinogen
hepatopancreatic sphincter (sphincter of oddi)
entery of bile and pancreatic juice is controlled by this muscular valve.
parietal cells
(oxyntic) produce HCl making stomach acidic
hepatopancreatic ampulla
where the common bile duct and pancreatic duct join
hiatus hernia
stomach above diaphragm which cause food to go back up (food stuck)....helped by antacid and no eating latenight
crypts of lieberkuhn
secrete intestinal juices
Enteroendocrine
variety of hormones such as gastrin, histamin,serotonin
What are the 3 muscle layer in the stomach to allow churning?
cardia, longitudinal, circular
submucosal plexus (plexus of meissner)
contains sensory neurons and other nerural fibers
acid + base =
water and salt
pyloric sphncter
controls stomach emptying
stays close until the stomach acids have finish digestion
villi
fingerlike projections of the mucosa in the sm intestine which increase surface area
fundus
top of the stomach
hepatitis
inflammation of the liver due to viral infection
esophageal hiatus
opening in diaphragm where it enters the stomach
mumps
inflammation of the parotid glands which speads by saliva
digestive tract has ________ lining
epithelial
peritonitis
inflammation of the peritoneum, caused by wound or ulcer.
mesocolon
hold large intestine in place
peritoneum
tissue surrounding the abdomen

visceral- covers the external surfaces (organs)
parietal- lines the walls of the abdominopelvic cavity
omentum
greater/lesser...helps to hang the digestive tract. storage of fat.
hormone that coordinate the activities of the digestive tract and accessory glands
enteroendocrine cells
amylase
breaks down carbs...in the saliva.
peristalsis
wave to propel objects
splanchnic circulation
those arteries that branch off the abdominal aorta to serve the digestive organs and the hepactic portal circulation.
lysozymes and defensins
produce in sm amt. in intenstine to remove bacteria
to get rid of urea and uric acid
sweat but mainly urine
ingest
take into the mouth
retroperitoneum
behind the peritoneum tissue....peal off to get to kidney
Saliva
mainly H2O....helps lubracate as food moves down.
parotid gland
back by the mandable.....infection by tobacco
types of salivary glands
parotid, submandibular, sublingual
absorb
goes into the blood stream....start bottom of stomach
lingual frenulum
holds tongue in place
mesentery
milky white tissue that surrounds the intenstine, also hold organs in place and store fat
digest
to breakdown, by mechaninal and chemically