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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Primary Organs
mouth stomach
pharynx esophagus
small and large intestine
accessory organs
teeth liver
salivary glands gallbladder
tongue
pancreas
3 salivary glands
partoid, sub-mandibular, and sublingual
digestion of fats begin where
Liver makes bile, gallbladder holds bile until it is needed to break down fats.
Panccreas does what?
produces pancreatic juice that breaks down proteins carbs and fats.
Thrush ~~ candida albicans
teach pt to use soft bristled toothbrush, use meticulous handwashing, eat soft/pureed foods. Avoid hot, cold, spicy, fried, or citrus foods.Meds given are Nystatin, or ketoconazole.
Oral cancers
Leukoplakia : white firmly attached patch on mouth or tongue, it is benign but should get checked if lasts longer than 2-3 weeks.
Dysphagia
difficulty swallowing b/c of trauma, infection, inflamation,or blockage of the posterior cavity, pharynx or esophagus.
Dysphasia
imairment of speech and verbal comprehension, expecially when associated w/ brain injury.
esophagus cancer
diagnosed at late stages, no known cause, S/S progressive dysphagia, painful swallowing, wt. loss, NG tube after surgery, high protein and calorie diet.
Chyme
Formed when the muscles of the stomach contract and help mix the food. Gastric juices break down protein, a thick mucous is made.
Small intesine (what is the passage order)
duodenum, jejunum and ileum.
What does the illeocecal valve do?
allows passage from small to large intestine.
Functions of the large intestine?
absorbing water & remaining nurtients,formes feces and expells feces.
Celiac disease
Hallmark signs: foul smelling frothy stools containing fat (streatorrhea).Foods that must be restricted are ones that contain wheat, oats, rye and barley.
Celiac disease (untreated)
the child will have poor growth, osteoporosis, osteomalacia, anema, & poor blood clotting.
Chrones disease
food restriction are broccoli, cauliflower, asparagus, cabbage, brussell sprouts, ^ fat foods, cafeine.
Chrones what do you eat
Eat elemental diet b/c there is less to break downand has little stool bulk.
Paralytic Ileus
absence of bowel sounds. insert NG tube, keep pt. NPO & increase activity to increase peristalis.
Salmonallea Infection
S/S gastroenteritis, fever, & diarrhea. Meds are ampicillin, amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin.
cleft lip and palate
Lip does not join together under nose. Palate : the top of the mouth does not join.
appendicitis
is the inflamation of the appendix. S/S ^ temp WBC's over 10,000, pain @ McBurney's point.
Tx. For Appendicitis
Surgical removal, IV's and antibiotics, ice pack to the abdomen.
peritonitis
inflammation or infection of the inside of the abdominal caivty.inflammation of the perineum, it is caused when fecal matter leaves the bowel and enters the sterile cavity.
Diverticulitis
colon weakness and allows the inner layersto herniate through causing pouches along the outside of the colon to be filled w/ fecal materialthat then causes inflammation and abscesses.
hemorrhoids
Diet: bulk forming foods such as fresh fruit, veggies, & bran cereals 8-10 glasses of fluid a day, moderate excercise.
colon tumor
S/S rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, nausea, cachexia (weakness & emaciation associated w/ general illness.
paralytic ileus (nursing care)
decompression of the bowelwith an NG tube, NPO, icreased activity. *necrosis of stoma will appear pale and dusky to black.
Anal Fistula
a Linear ulceration or laceration of the skin of the anus, abnormal opening on the cutaneous surface near the anus. *common in crohn's disease*
Esophageal Atresia
The esophagus fails to form normally, ends in a blind pouch, a gastrostomy is created. Infant sucks on pacifier to retain sucking reflex.
Pyloric Stenosis
narrowing or stricture of the pylorus. Projectile vomiting after feeding.
Cirrhosis of the liver
results in portal hypertension, or increased pressure in the veins that drain the GI tract. GI organs and spleen become congested, cant function properly.
What can the sick liver NOT absorb?
Vit. K
Esophageal varices
Tortuous, distended vessels of the esophagus, may rupture & bleed.
S/S of Esophageal varices
Hematemisis, hemorrhage from Gi, black tarry stools, pain and shock.
Tx. of Esophageal varices
Blood transfusion, Iced saline lavage, meds vasopressin, antibiotics, analgesics, Surgeries.
Hepatitis A
inflammation of the liver from a virus or exposure to toxic substances.
Hepatitis A S/S
diarrhea, pruritis, nausea, constipation, wt. loss, liver tenderness, aching muscles, enlarged lymph nodes & jaundice.
Cholelithiasis
Has to do w/ gallstones. they are not a problem if they remain small.
Cholecystectomy
Removal of the GB. Pt. will have a JP drain to prevent fluid build up under the diaphragm.
Hepatic Encephalopathy
Type of brain damage caused by liver disease & consequent ammonia intoxixation. Result of a damaged liver being unable to metabolize substances that can be toxic to the brain such as ammonia.
Hepatic Encephalopathy (diet)
Very low protein to no protein diet. Allowed foods: toast, cereal, rice, tea, fruit juice, and hard candies.
Hepatic Encephalopathy (medications)
Lactulose or Neomycin.
GERD
Backward flow of stomach contents up into the esophagus. Most have delayed gastric emptying.
GERD (S/S)
heartburn, pain may involve the neck,jaw, or back, dysphagia, regurgitation w/out nausea.
GERD (Tests & medical management)
Barium swallow, endoscopy, 24-hour ph monitoring.
Avoid smoking, wt.loss (if needed) antacids, proton pump inhibitors, give prilosec, prevacid or reglan.
Azulfadine (Sulfaxalizine)
Decreaseinflammation in GI tract, give w/ food & large amounts of water, avoid exposure to sunlight, Tx. ulcerative colitis, chrohn's disease.
NSAIDS
Anti-inflammatory & pain medications.
Lomotil
Antidiarrheal, decreased GI motility w/ subsequent decrease in diarrhea. Tx. Ulcerative colitis
Carafate (Sucralfate)
Forms protective coating over ulcer, seperate administration of this med from other meds by two hours.
Oral Cancer (early Stages)
difficulty chewing, swallowing, speaking, numbness or swelling in mouth, constant pain in ear, face, or tooth.
GERD
Cardiac sphincter is too relaxed & allows food and gastric acid to splash into the lower esophagus.
Diet for Diverticulitis
Low residue
Pernicious Anemia (S/S)
S/S extreme weakness, dyspnea, fever, hypoxia, wt. loss, jaundice, contipation and diarrhea.
Pernicious Anemia (Diet)
diet ^ in protein, vitamins and minerals.