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123 Cards in this Set

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A lack of a desire to eat despite physiologic stimuli and would normally produce hunger.
Anorexia
The forceful emptying of the stomach and intestinal contents through the mouth.
Vomiting
The presence of what in the duodenum stimulates the vomiting reflex?
ipecac or copper salts
Spontaneous vomiting not preceded by nausea or retching.
Projectile vomiting
Difficult or infrequent defecation.
Constipation
What kind of diet decreases the volume and number of stools that causes constipation?
A low-residue diet (highly refined foods)
What physicical aspects other than diet can contribute to constipation?
sedentary life-style, lack of regular exercise, hypothyroidism, excessive use of antacids, aging
What is the treatment for dysfunctional constipation?
manage the underlying lesion or disease
An increase in the frequency of defecation and the fluidity and volume of feces.
Diarrhea
A nonabsorbable substance in the intestine draws excess water into the intestine and increases stool weight and volume, producing large volume diarrhea.
Osmotic diarrhea
What is the cause of osmotic diarrhea?
lactase and pancreatic enzyme deficiency and excessive ingestion of synthetic, nonabsorbable sugars
Excessive mucosal secretion of fluid and electrolytes producing large-volume diarrhea.
Secretory diarrhea
What is the cause of large-volume secretory diarrhea?
bacterial enterotoxins, neoplasms or exotoxins
_____ is usually caused by an inflammatory disorder of the intestines.
Small-volume diarrhea
Treatment for diarrhea.
restoration of fluid and electrolyte balance
What kind of abdominal pain from the peritoneum is localized and intense?
parietal pain
What kind of abdominal pain arises from a stimulus acting on an abdominal organ?
visceral pain
What kind of abdominal pain is felt at some distance from a diseased or affected organ?
referred pain
Bleeding in the esophagus, stomach or duodenum.
upper gastrointestinal bleeding
Upper GI bleeds are commonly caused by what?
varicose veins in the esophagus, peptic ulcers, or a Mallory-Weiss tear
Lower GI bleeds are commonly caused by what?
polyps, inflammatory disease, cancer, or hemorrhoids
Bloody vomitus; either fresh, bright red blood or dark grainy digested blood with "coffee grounds" appearance.
Hematemesis
Black, sticky, tarry, foul-smelling stools caused by digestion of blood in the GI tract.
Melena
Fresh, bright red blood passed from the rectum.
Hematochezia
Trace amounts of blood in normal-appearing stools or gastric secretions; detecable only with a guaiac test.
Occult bleeding
What are two causes of a Mallory-Weiss tear?
retching and vomiting
The digestion of blood proteins originating from massive upper GI bleeding is reflected in an increase of ____ levels.
BUN
Difficulty swallowing; can result from mechanical obstuction of esophagus or a disorder than impairs esophageal motility.
Dysphagia
What is used to diagnose dysphagia and allows visualization of the structural defects of the esophagus?
barium swallow
The reflux of chyme (acid and pepsin) from the stomach through the lower esophageal sphincter to the esophagus.
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER)
When is pain increased in patients with GER?
when lying down
What determines the severity of esophagitis?
composition of gastric contents and the length of timme they are in contact with the esophagus
What treatment is given for esophagitis?
antacids
The protrusion of the upper part of the stomach through the diaphragm and into the thorax.
Hiatal hernia
The narrowing or blocking of the opening between the stomach and the duodenum.
Pyloric obstruction
True or False: Pyloric obstruction is congenital only.
False: can be congenital or acquired
Acquired pyloric obstruction is caused by _____.
peptic ulcer disease or carcinoma near the pylorus
In the later stages, what is a cardinal sign of pyloric obstruction?
vomiting
Can be caused by any condition that prevents the normal flow of chyme through the intestinal lumen.
Intestinal obstruction
What are the cardinal symptoms of of intestinal obstruction?
colicky pains followed by vomiting
An inflammatory disorder of the gastric mucosa.
Gastritis
Gastritis can be acute or chronic and affect the ____, ____ or both.
fundus, antrum
____ erodes the surface epithelium in a diffuse or localized pattern. The erosions are usually superficial.
Acute gastritis
What are some contributing factors to acute gastritis?
alcohol, histamine, digitalis, and metabolic disorders (uremia)
Causes thinning and degeneration of the stomach wall usually occuring in the elderly.
Chronic gastritis
What usually develops with chronic gastritis due to the impaired B12 absorption in the ilium?
pernicious anemia
How are symptoms of chronic gastritis managed?
with smaller meals; soft, bland diets; avoidance of alcohol and aspirin; B12 supplements
A break, or ulceration, in the protective mucosal lining of the lower esophagus, stomach, or duodenum.
peptic ulcer
What kind of ulcers occur with greater frequency and are more common among young men with type O blood?
duodenal ulcers
Ulcers of the stomach that occur equally in men and women usually between the ages of 55 and 65.
gastric ulcers
An acute form of a peptic ulcer that tends to accompany severe illness, systemic trauma, or neural injury.
stress ulcer
A peptic ulcer erodes into a vessel causing occult bleeding.
erosive PUD
Rapid emptying of hypertonic chyme from surgically residual stomach into the small intestine.
Dumping syndrome
Stomach inflammation caused by reflux of bile and alkaline pancreatic secretions containing proteolytic enzymes that disrupt the mucosal barrier
Alkaline reflux gastritis
Intermittent severe pain and epigastric fullness after eating as a result of volvulus, hernia, adhesion, or stenosis of the duodenal stump.
Afferent loop obstruction
What can result from iron malabsorption due to decreased acid scretion.
Anemia
The deficient production of lipase, amylase, trypsin and chymotrypsin required for the digestion of proteins, carbs and fats.
pancreatic insufficiency
What are some causes of pancreatic insufficiency?
chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic carcinoma, resection and cystic fibrosis
What deficiency inhibits the breakdown of lactose into monosaccharides and therefore prevents lactose digestion and absorption?
Lactase deficiency
What is necessary for the digestion and absorption of fats?
bile salts
A chronic inflammatory disease that causes ulceration of the colonic mucosa usually in the rectum and sigmoid colon.
Ulcerative colitis
What disease is more prevalent in those of Jewish decent and whites between 20 and 40 years old?
Ulcerative colitis
An inflammatory disorder that affects both the large and small intestines
Crohn disease
Herniations of saclike outpouchings of mucosa through the muscle layers, usually in the wall of the sigmoid colon.
Diverticula
Asymptomatic diverticular disease
Diverticulosis
Inflammatory diverticular disease
Diverticulitis
Diverticulitis is only caused by a person's _____.
diet
An inflammation of the vermiform appendix, which is a projection from the apex of the cecum.
Appendicitis
The most common surgical emergency of the abdomen that affects 7-12% of the population.
Appendicitis
What is the typical symptom of an inflamed appendix?
gastric or periumbilical pain
Insufficient blood flow to arteries of the digestive system.
Vascular Insufficiency
Defined as body mass indexes that correspond to body weight of 120% or more of ideal body weight.
obesity
What syndrome is associated with obesity?
metabolic syndrome
Obese individuals are at risk for what?
coronary artery disease, diabetes, gallstones, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, cancer
A psychologic and physiologic syndrome characterized by fear of becoming obese, distorted body image, 15% less than normal body weight, and absence of menstrual periods.
Anorexia nervosa
Characterized by binging followed by self-induced vomiting or purging of the intestines with laxatives.
Bulimia nervosa
Individuals with what disorder are afraid of gaining weight, but usually stay within normal range?
Bulimia nervosa
Abnormally high blood pressure in the portal venous system.
portal hypertension
Enlargement of the spleen caused by increased pressure in the splenic vein.
splenomegaly
The accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity caused by increased pressure in the mesenteric tributaries of the portal vein.
ascites
Also called portal-systemic encephalopathy, which is characterized by central nervous system disturbances.
hepatic encephalopathy
A yellow or greenish pigmentation of the skin caused by excess bilirubin
jaundice
Consists of advanced liver disease with portal hypertension and functional renal failure with oliguria, sodium and water retention, hypotension and peripheral vasodilation.
hepatorenal syndrome
A relatively common systemic disease that affects primarily the liver.
viral hepatitis
Name the 5 strains of hepatitis.
A, B, C, D, E
Hepatitis D occurs with hepatitis __.
B
Incubation period for hepatitis A.
30 days
Route of transmission for hep. A.
fecal-oral, parenteral, sexual
Incubation period for Hep.B
60-180 days
Route of transmission for Hep.B
parenteral, sexual
What is the surface antigen for Hep.B?
HBsAg
Incubation period for Hep.D
30-180 days
Route of transmission for Hep.D
parenteral(?), fecal-oral, sexual
Incubation period for Hep.C
35-60 days
Transmission route for Hep.C
parenteral, sexual
Incubation period for Hep.E
15-60 days
Transmission route for Hep.E
fecal-oral
What phase of Hepatitis begins 2 weeks after exposure and ends with the appearance of jaundice?
prodromal phase
Infection is highly transmissible during what phase of Hepatitis?
prodromal phase
What phase of Hepatitis is marked by fatigue, anorexia, malaise, nausea, vomiting, headache, hyperalgia, cough, and fever?
prodromal phase
What phase of Hepatitis begins 1 to 2 weeks after the prodromal phase and lasts 2-6 weeks. (Actual phase of illness)
Icteric phase
What phase of Hepatitis occurs with jaundice, dark urine, clay-colored stools, and enlarged liver?
Icteric phase
What phase of Hepatitis begins with resolution of jaundice, about 6-8 weeks after exposure; symptoms diminish but liver remains enlarged.
recovery phase
Persistence of clinical manifestations and liver inflammation after acute hepatitis B, C and D.
chronic active hepatitis
What causes a predisposition to cirrhosis and primary heptocellular carcinoma?
chronic active hepatitis B
An irreversible inflammatory disease that disrupts liver structure and function and is a leading cause of death in the US.
Cirrhosis
What Hepatitis has no test?
E
Caused by the toxic effects of alcohol on the liver, immunologic alterations, and oxidative stress from lipid peroxidation.
Alcoholic cirrhosis
Differs from alcoholic cirrhosis in that the damage and inflammation leading to cirrhosis begin in the bile ducts rather than in the hepatocytes.
Biliary cirrhosis
What are the three most common causes of cirrhosis?
chronic excessive alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis, fatty liver
Gallstone formation.
cholelithiasis
Inflammation of the gallbladder of cystic duct.
cholecystitis
The most common type of gallstones
cholesterol gallstones
What are the risk factors for cholesterol gallstones?
obesity, middle age, female, Native American
Inflammation of the pancreas.
Pancreatitis
What type of pancreatitis is usually mild?
acute pancreatitis
Structural or functional impairment of the pancreas leads to _____.
chronic pancreatitis
What is the most common cause of chronic pancreatitis?
alcohol abuse
What is a great risk factor for pancreatic cancer?
chronic pancreatitis
What type of cancer metasitasizes rapidly and therefore has a poor prognosis?
esophageal cancer
What are the most important environmental causative factors of gastric (stomach) cancer?
infection with H.pylori, heavily salted and preserved foods, low intake of fruits and vegetables, tobacco and alcohol use
The third most common cause of cancer deaths in the US.
colorectal cancer
A tender, swollen, bluish mass in the anus.
thrombosed hemorrhoids