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22 Cards in this Set

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Nutrient
substance in food that provides the raw materials and energy the body needs to carry out all the essential life processes.
Carbohydrate
nutrient composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen that is a major source of energy and provides the raw materials to make parts of cells.
Protein
nutrient that contains nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; they are needed for tissue growth and repair and play a part in chemical reactions with cells.
Amino acids
small units that are linked together chemically to form large protein molecules.
Fat
high-energy nutrient that is composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen and contains more than twice as much energy as an equal amount of carbohydrates.
Lipid
fat;high-energy nutrient that is composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen and contains more than twice as much energy as an equal amount of carbohydrates.
Monosaccharide
one ring of sugar; simple sugar
Disaccharide
two rings of sugar; complex sugar
Polysaccaride
ten rings of sugar; starch
Bolus
the ball in which food goes down the throat (created by saliva)
Enzyme
a protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the body, and assists in chemical digestion.
Peristalsis
involuntary waves of muscle contraction that keep food moving along in one direction through the digestive system.
Amylase
enzymes in the mouth and saliva that begin to break down food.
Catalase
an enzyme that causes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen.
Pepsin
an enzyme made in the stomach that breaks down proteins.
Bile
a substance produced by the liver that breaks up fat particles.
Absorption
the process by which nutrient molecules pass through the wall of the digestive system into the blood.
Mechanical Digestion
the physical breaking down of foods by force
Chemical Digestion
enzymes eating away at bonds connecting molecules in food in order to break food down.
Villi
tiny finger-shaped structures that cover the inner surface of the small intestine and provide a large surface area through which digested food is absorbed.
Rectum
a short tube at the end of the large intestine where waste material is compressed into a solid form before being eliminated.
Anus
a muscular opening at the end of the rectum through which digestive waste material is eliminated from the body.