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46 Cards in this Set

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What are the fxn of the digestive system?
transport , digestion, and absorption of ingested nutrietns
barrier between internal and external enviroment
protection agianst pathogens
endocrine function
intrinsic factor
removal of heptatic excretory products
reabsoprtion of secreted fluid and electrolytes
What physical parts does the digetive system have which protect against pathogens?
acid secretion, peristalis, IgA, presence of secondary lymphatic tissue, tonsils, peyer's patch, appendix
What are the endocrine fxn of the digestive system?
gastrin, CCK, GLP1, secretin, ghrelin
What products does the heptic system excrete?
drugs
Cholesterol
What fluids does the digestive system reabsorb?
fluids and electrolytes
1-2 L of saliva a day
How long is the digestive system?
9 meters in length
What does the salivary glands secrete?
fluid containing ptyalin
Fxn of saliva
- lubricate food
- facilitates speech
saliva is
hypotonic
PSNS __________ secretions
SNS ___________ secretions
increases
decreases
The largest salivary gland is ___________ and can be effected by __________
paritods
Mumps virus
Dysphagia
difficultly with swallowing
What initiates swallowing?
Bolus of food
What fluids are secreted by stomach fluids?
Gastrin, HCL, pepsinogen, mucus, ghrelin
Gastrin
acid secretion- they go up with a meal- cause pH to change and HCL goes up
Pepsinogen
secreted as inactive forms- zimogens (enzymes)
they break down complex molecules
becomes pepsin and then breaks down protiens - facilititates breakdown of protiens
HCL
bacterialcial or bacteriosidic
alcohol
rapidly absorbed in the stomach
the fxn of mucus
severes as a barrier
ghrelin
a new hormone secreted by the stomach - may be involved in satiety
H. plyloria
causes ulcers
contributes to urease
gram negative
spiral shaped bacterium
Peptiv ulcers
5 million Americans
50 percent of adults over 50 colonized with H pylori
H plyori fxn
sustains gastrin secretion resulitng in more H= secretion
(2) secretes toxins or enzymes that damage the mucosa
Detecting H plyori
breath test
c14 ura ingested
urease from H pylori converts this into c14o2
gets into blood stream and can be measured in breath
acid secretionbstimulated by
gastin
acetylcholine
histamine
As acid accumulates
reduces gastrin secretion
Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome
too much gastrin
What nerver affects the stomach?
vagus- which terminates in the medulla at the Emetic center
Where does the emetic center receive information from?
cortical centers and the vestibular apparatus (this center detects motion)
recieves input from the chemoreceptro trigger zone
Ipecac
drug that cause emesis
Vomiting can cause ....
dehydration, alkalosis, and hypokalemia
Antiemetics are....
scopolamine
antihistamines
dopamine antagonist
Chyme
food in the stomach
chyle
food in the small intestines
first thing to neutralize the H+
H+ stimulates
secretin relase and therefore causing secretion of pancreatic fluid which is rich in bicarbonate.
Explain digestion
amino acids and fatty acids in chlye stimulate the secretion of CCK- this caues the pancreas to secrete digestive enzymes (zymogens) and the Gall Bladder to contract. Acetylcholine fromt eh vagus also participates in enzyme secretion. Together secretion and CCK synergizes.
Pancritiis usually caused by
alcohol and gallstones
pancreatic secretions enter the ___________ via the ____________
small intestines
pancreatic duct
What is the ampulla of Vater?
pacreatic distal end that converges with the bile duct at the ampulla of Vater
What is the brush border of enterocytes?
enzymes are contained in villi (fingerlike projections) and breakdown nutrients into further elements, for example, simple sugars and amino acids
lactose 16 intolerance is a result of the absence of one of these
Where do nutrients go to from the intestines?
portal circulation
most digested nutrients (amino acids and carboyhydrates) are dilvered to the liver via the portal circulation
Chylimicrons enter the circulation via
lacteals (beginning of teh lymphatic drainage)
then enter the venous circulation via the thoracic duct
What happend at the terminla ileum?
about 75% of bile salts are reabsorbed
B12 is absorded here
What happens if bile salts are not reclaimed by the liver?
if they escape- they can cause pruritus and promblem in cirrhosis
What happens in the large intestines?
salt and water are absorbed
bacteria is here as well
What is the tumor marker for colon cancer ?
relationship between serum carcinoembryonic antiger (CEA) levels