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54 Cards in this Set

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What does Chyme break down?
1) Carbohydrates
2) Lipids
3) Proteins
What are the three phases of digestion?
1) Cephalic: GI response (autonomic, endocrine, exocrine) prepares for food as it is chewed
2) Gastric: GI response to food in stomach
3) Intestinal: GI response to food in intestines
What is the route and epithelium of salivary gland ducts from inner to outer?
1) Acin-tubular end pieces: Mucus (tubular) and Serous (spherical) surrounded by myoepithelial cells (w/actin + myosin)
2) Intercalated ducts: low cuboidal to squamous
3) convoluted striated: columnar
4) Excretory ducts: simple cuboidal/columnar to stratified cuboidal/columan to stratified squamous
Where are minor glands found and what do they secrete?
1) lips, cheeks, tongue, floor of mouth
2) mucous secretion contributes to saliva
What are the characteristics (component, amount, pH), function, and control of secretion for saliva?
Characteristic: rich in mucus, 1500ml/day, pH 7
Function: lubricate oral cavity and food, facilitate swallowing and phonation
Control: parasympathetic -stimulate secretion, sympathetic-inhibit
What is alpha-amylase secretion made of and functions?
Function: break down starch, dissolves food for taste buds
Made of: bicarbonate (buffer) lysozymes (antibacterial enzymes), IgA
What is the size, location, epithelium, and effects of illness of Filiform papillae?
Size: 2-3mm long
Epithelium: keratinized, no taste buds
Location: ant 2/3 parallel rows
Illness: Superficial cells accumulate with bacteria = white appearance of tongue
What is the size, location, epithelium, and effects of illness of Filiform papillae?
Size: 2-3mm long
Epithelium: keratinized, no taste buds
Location: ant 2/3 parallel rows
Illness: Superficial cells accumulate with bacteria = white appearance of tongue
What is the epithelium of fungiform papilllae and where are they found?
stratified squamous (may be keratinized)
location: ant 2/3 interspersed with filiform.
Taste buds on dorsal side.
What is the epithelium of fungiform papilllae and where are they found?
stratified squamous (may be keratinized)
location: ant 2/3 interspersed with filiform.
Taste buds on dorsal side.
What is size, amount, epithelium, and location of taste buds of circumvallate (vallate) papillae?
Largest papillae
8-12 in all at sulcus terminalis
stratified squamous (may be keratinized)
Taste buds (250) on lateral sides
What is size, amount, epithelium, and location of taste buds of circumvallate (vallate) papillae?
Largest papillae
8-12 in all at sulcus terminalis
stratified squamous (may be keratinized)
Taste buds (250) on lateral sides
What are the functions of von Ebner glands and which papillae have them?
Function: serous gland keep space clean
Found in Circumvallate and foliate papillae
What are the functions of von Ebner glands and which papillae have them?
Function: serous gland keep space clean
Found in Circumvallate and foliate papillae
Where are foliate papillae found, and what is its epithelium?
Location: rows on lateral tongue more in infant tongue vs. adult tongue
Epithelium: stratified squamous usually not keratinized
Taste bud on lateral sides,
has von Ebner glands
Where are foliate papillae found, and what is its epithelium?
Location: rows on lateral tongue more in infant tongue vs. adult tongue
Epithelium: stratified squamous usually not keratinized
Taste bud on lateral sides,
has von Ebner glands
Where are taste buds found and what cells do they have?
location: upper surface of tongue, palate, epiglottis, pharynx
Cells: neuroepithelial, supporting, basal (undifferentiated, replaces other cells every 5-10 days)
-Microvilli projections
What are the 5 tastes?
1) Bitter
2) sweet
3) sour
4) salty
5) umami: glutamate, aspartate, msg
What are basal cells of taste buds?
Undifferentiated cells replaces neuroepithelial and supporting cels every 5-10 days
- do not reach taste pore
How are the intrinsic muscles of the tongue oriented?
3 planes at right angles
In what layer are Myenteric and Auerbach's plexus found?
Between layers of muscle in muscularis externa
What neurotransmitters do the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems use?
Parasympathetic: Acetylcholine
Sympathetic: Norepinephrine
What are some characteristic features of the esophagus?
1) Thick stratified squamous epithelium
2) glands in mucosa or submucosa
3) thick muscularis mucosae
4) skeletal muscle in upper 1/3 of muscularis externa
What are the three types of glands in the stomach?
1) Fundic/Gastric:all throughout stomach
2) Pyloric: near pyloris (duodenum jxn)
3) Cardiac: esophageal jxn
What are crypts of Lieberkuhn of small intestine and what cells do they contain?
-intestinal glands between villi
contain:
1) undifferentiated cells
2) Paneth: @base, basophilic cytoplasm acidophilic granules, secrete lysosome enzymes rich in arginine
3) goblet
4) enteroendocrine
What are the three types of cells in villi?
1) enterocytes: absorptive cells
2) goblet cells
3) enteroendocrine cells: GEP
Glycocalyx of microvilli of enterocytes are involved with converting _____ into ____
trypsinogen to trypsin
____filaments project into microvilli connected to _______ ___ which attach to junction complex via ____.
Actin, terminal web, myosin
Explain how lipids are broken down and absorbed.
Bile salts (liver) and lipases (pancrease break down lipids into micelles which are then broken down into fatty acids and monoglycerides which are absorbed in enterocytes. broken down in stomach, duodenum, jejunum and ileum absorbed in jejunum and ileum.
Explain the fate of short chained fatty acids and long chain fatty acids (side 3)
Short chain <10 carbon, cross cell to intercellular space and are transported on albumin to liver via portal vein.
Long chain >10 carbons, re-esterified to triglycerides in sER, golgi adds lipoprotein coatin to form CHYLOMICRONS that pass to intercellular space and to lymphatic to thoracic duct to veinous system to heart to arteries to capillaries. enzymes of endothelial cells break chylomicron down to glycerol and fatty acids, which are absorbed in adipose tissue(resynthesizes triglycerides and stores) or hepatocytes (vary, convert to cholesterol or triglycerides, glycerol to glucose to glycogen).
what does somatostatin do in GEP cells
inhibit activity of neighboring cells
T or F: the cryps of lieberkuhn in the large intestine have paneth cells
false, need bacteria so dont want bacteriolytic cells
T or F: there are no lymphatic vessels in lamina propria between colon crypts
true, which is why colon cancer takes long to metastasize
What are tenia coli
large bands (3) of longitudinal muscle in muscularis externa of colon
what kind of glands are circumanal glands?
apocrine sweat glands
pancreas is a mucus or serous secreting gland?
serous
what is the path of ducts from pancreas to duodenum?
Intercalated to intralobular to interlobular to main duct to duodenum
what does the exocrine pancreas secrete?
Secretin, proteases (trypsinogen and chymptrypsinogen) and pro-enzymes (converted to lipases, amylases, nucleases)
What is Steatorrhea?
Pancreatic exocrine deficiency (lipases)
results in excess fat in stool
What is bile made of?
Bile salts (50%)
Lecithin, phospholipid fat emulsifier, 30-40%
Bilirubin, break down product of hemoglobin (2%)
What is the path of blood in liver?
Portal area (hepatic art., portal vein) to sinusoid, to central vein to sublobular vein to hepatic vein to inferior vena cava.
What is glucoronide
a gluconurate bound to substrate (steroid)
mechanism for detoxification of drugs esp. barbituates
What are the five classes of lipoproteins?
1) chylomicrons
2) VLDL
3) IDL
4) LDL
5) HDL
what does liver store?
iron, vit. A, D, B12
What makes up a hepatic lobule, portal lobule, and a liver acinus
Hepatic lobule: hexagon with central vein in middle
Portal lobule, triangle with portal area in middle and central vein on corners
Liver acinus (functional): Diamond with central veins on ends and a terminal branch of one portal area.
What is the route of bile?
Bile canaliculi, canal of hering, bild duct, common hepatic duct, cystic duct, gall bladder.
how is bile concentrated?
Na+/K+ pump, pumps Na+ out of cell to blood stream, water follows. water from gall bladder lumen enters cell concentrating bile.
True or False: There are glands on the red margin of the lips
False, no glands. vermilion border /red margin/ free border
Intercalated ducts secrete ______ and absorb ____
secrete:bicarbonate,
Absorb: Cl-
Von Bekesy noted that the motion of the BM was in the form of a ___________ wave, like the one that occurs when you flick a _______. The wave _____________ at the frequency of ____________, but it is not a ______________ wave.
traveling
rope
oscillates
stimulation
sinusoidal
How often do basal cells replace neuroepithelial and supporting cells?
every 5-10 days
Taste bud cells contain (microvilli or cilia)?
microvilli
What makes dentin and where are they located?
Odontoblasts, w/in pulp @ interface w/ dentin
What is the breakdown of dentin?
80% inorganic
20% organic (collagen)