Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/76

Click to flip

76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Achalasia
failure of the smooth muscle to relax at some junction in the digestive tube, such as between the esophagus and stomach
Achlorhydria
lack of hydrochloric acid in gastric secretions
Anorexia Nervosa
self-starvation
aphagia
inability to swallow
Cachexia
state of chronic malnutrition and physical wasting
celiac disease
inability to digest or use fats and carbohydrates
Cholecystitis
inflammation of the gallbladder
Cholelithiasis
stones in the gallbladder
Cholestasis
blockage in bile flow from the gallbladder
cirrhosis
liver condition in which the hepatic cells degenerate in the surrounding connective tissue thickens
diverticulitis
inflammation of the small pouches (diverticula) that form in the lining and walls of the colon
dumping syndrome
symptoms, including diarrhea, that often follow a gastrectomy
dysentery
and intestinal infection caused by viruses, bacteria, or protozoans that cause diarrhea and cramps
dyspepsia
indigestion; difficulty in digesting a meal
Dysphagia
difficulty in swallowing
Enteritis
inflammation of the intestines
esophagitis
inflammation of the esophagus
gastrectomy
partial or complete removal of the stomach
gastrostomy
creation of an opening in the stomach wall through which food and liquids can be administered, when swallowing is not possible
glossitis
inflammation of the tongue
hyperalimentation
long-term intravenous nutrition
Ileitis
inflammation of the ileum
pharyngitis
inflammation of the pharynx
polyphagia
over eating
pyloric stenosis
congenital obstruction at the pyloric sphincter due to an enlarged pyloric muscle
pylorosplasm
spasm of the pyloric portion of the stomach or of the pyloric sphincter
Pyorrhea
inflammation of the dental periosteum with pus formation
stomatitis
inflammation of the lining of the mouth
aliment
food
alimentary canal
tubelike portion of the digestive system
chym
juice
chyme
semi fluid paste of food particles and gastric juice, formed in the stomach
decidu
falling off
deciduous teeth
teeth replaced during childhood
gastr
stomach
gastric gland
portion of the stomach that secretes gastric juice
hepat
liver
hepatic duct
duct that carries bile from the liver to the common bile duct
lingu
tongue
lingual tonsil
mass of lymphatic tissue at the root of the tongue
nutri
nourishing
nutrient
chemical substance required to nourish body cells
peri
around
peristalsis
waveliring of contraction, that moves material along the alimentary canal
pylor
gatekeeper
pyloric sphincter
muscle that serves as a valve between the stomach and small intestine
vill
hairy
villi
tiny projections of mucous membrane in the small intestine
vitamin
organic compounds, other than a carbohydrates, lipid, or proteins - required for normal metabolism. At that the body cannot synthesize in adequate amounts
bile
fluid secreted by liver and stored in the gallbladder
calorie
unit to measure heat energy in the energy content of foods
feces
material expelled from the digestive tract during defecation
gastric juice
secretion from gastric glands located within the stomach
intestinal juice
fluid that intestinal glands secrete, containing digestive enzymes
intestinal villus
tiny, fingerlike projections that extends outward from the lining of the small intestine
intrinsic factor
substance that gastric glands produce to promote absorption of vitamin B12
malnutrition
physical symptoms resulting from lack of specific nutrients
mesentery
fold of peritoneal membranes that attaches abdominal organs to the abdominal wall
mineral
elements not found in organic compounds that is essential in human metabolism
pancreatic juice
digestive secretions from the pancreas
Pepsinogen
source is from the chief cells of the gastric glands
it is an in active form of pepsin
Pepsin
formed from pepsinogen in the presence of hydrochloric acid
it is a protein-splitting enzyme that digests nearly all types of protein
hydrochloric acid
produced by the parietal cells of the gastric glands
provides the acidic environment needed for the conversion of pepsinogen into pepsin and for the action of pepsin
mucus
produced by goblet cells and mucous glands
provides a viscous, alkaline protective layer on the inside stomach wall
intrinsic factor
produced by the parietal cells of the gastric glands

aids in vitamin B12 absorption
gastrin
produced by gastric cells in response to food
causes gastric glands to increase their secretory activity
cholesystokinin
produced by intestinal wall cells in response to proteins and fat in the small intestine
causes the gastric glands to decrease their secretory activity and inhibits gastric motility
Secretin
produced by cells in the duodenal wall in response to acidic chyme entering the small intestine
stimulates the pancreas to secrete fluid with a high bicarbonate ion concentration
amylase
produced by the salivary and pancreatic glands
begins carbohydrate digestion at breaking down starch and glycogen into disaccharides
Pepsin
produced by the gastric glands
begins protein digestion
lipase
produced by the pancreatic glands
breaks down fat into fatty acids and glycerol
Proteolytic enzymes
Trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase - produced by the pancreas
breaks down proteins or partially digested proteins into peptides
nucleases
produced by pancreas
breaks down nucleic acids into nucleotides
Peptidase
produced intestinal mucosal cells
breaks down peptides into amino acids
Sucrase, maltase, lactase
produced by mucosal cells
breaks down disaccharides into monosaccharides
enterokinase
produced by mucosal cells
converts trypsinogen into trypsin