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45 Cards in this Set

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2.7 Klinefelter's syndrome is a genetic DO that:
a. affects males and is caused by the presence of an extra X chromosome
b. affects males and is caused by the presence of an extra Y chromosome
c. affects females and is caused by the presence of an extra X chromosome
d. affects females and is caused by the presence of an extra Y chromosome
2.7 Klinefelter's syndromd is one of the most common genetic abnormalities.
a. CORRECT - A male w/ Klinefelter's syndrome has 2 or more X female chromosomes in addn to a single Y chromosome. Sxs incl small testicles, infertility, enlarged breast tissue, scant facial/body hair, and a dec'd libido.
2.12 The anterior cingulate cortex is believed to be involved in:
a. color vision
b. spatial memory
c. emotional reactions to pain
d. the physiol. component of anxiety
2.12 The anterior cingulate cortex is located in the limbic cortex on the medial side of the cerebral hemispheres.
c. CORRECT - A no. of studies have confirmed that exposure to painful stimuli activates the anterior cingulate cortex. However, this structure does not appear to be involved in the perception of pain but, instead, in the emotional recation to painful stimuli.
2.26 To assess the reliability of a characteristic that fluctuates in severity or intensity over time, you wd be best advised to use which of the following:
a. coeff of equivalence
b. coeff of stability
c. coeff of determination
d. coeff of internal consistency
2.26 If the characteristic measured by a test fluctuates over time (i.e., is a "state"0, it wd not be approp to assess the test's reliability using a method that reqs admining the test (or alt forms of the test) at diff times.
a. Incorrect - A coeff of equiv is obted when equiv forms reliability is used. In most cases, it is necess to admin the diff forms at diff times; therefore, this method wd not be the best for a test that measures a characteristic that fluctuates over time.
b. Incorrect - The coeff of stability is obted when using test-retest reliability, which wd also be inapprop for a measure of a characteristic that fluctuates over time.
c. The coeff of determination is not a measure of reliability.
d. CORRECT - A coeff of internal consistency wd be appropr for a test that measures a characteristic that fluctuates over time since it reqs admining the test only once.
2.38 Research on the dvpt of depth perception in infants has shown that sensitivity to depth cues emerges in which of the following sequences (from first to last):
a. binocular, pictorial, kinetic
b. kinetic, pictorial, binocular
c. binocular, kinetic, pictorial
d. kinetic, binocular, pictorial
2.38 The studies have confirmed that sensitivity to depth cues dvps in a predictable sequence.
d. CORRECT - Babies are sensitive to kinetic cues (movemt of objects closer to their eyes) as early as 3 weeks of age. B/w 2 and 3 mths of age, they beg to make use of binocular cues to judge the distance of objects. Finally, by about 7 mths of age, babies perceive pictorial depth cues.
2.40 Kohlberg's cognitive-dvptal theory distings b/w 3 stages in gender identity dvpt. The 1st stage is ____, which involves recoging one's own gender and is ordinarily first apparent b/w 2 and 3 yrs of age:
a. gender constancy
b. gender conservation
c. gender identity
d. gender stability
2.40 According to Kohlberg's cognitive-dvptal theory, the dvpt of gender identity involves a sequence of 3 stages - gender identity, gender stability, and gender constancy.
a. Incorrect - Gender constance does not dvpt until 6 to 7 yrs of age.
b. Incorrect - Gender conservation is an alternative term for gender constancy.
c. CORRECT - Children begin to identify themselves (and others) as either a boy or girl at 2 to 3 yrs of age. This is gender identity.
d. Incorrect - Gender stability is usu evident by 4 to 6 yrs of age.
2.8 In females with _____, part or all of one X chromosome is missing.
a. Mullerian syndrome
b. Fragile X syndrome
c. Cushing syndrome
d. Turner Syndrome
2.8 Females w/ Turner syndrome do not dvp 2ndary sex characteristics during puberty. They are typically short w/ a thick, webbed neck and are usu infertile due to a lack of normal ovaries; many have mild learning probs
a. Incorrect - Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome is a congenital DO that is caused by a lack of anti-Mullerian hormone or receptors for this hormone.
b. Incorrect - Fragile X syndrome is a hereditary condition that causes MR and other cog impairmts as well as cert. phys. and behal abnormalities.
c. Incorrect - Cushing syndrome is due to malfunctioning of the adrenal cortex.
d. CORRECT - A w/ this DO have an XO chromosome pattern (i.e., one X chromosome w/ no other functioning sex chromosome).
2.42 The James-Lange theory of emotions emphasizes the role of:
a. visceral and muscular reactions
b. thalamic stimulation of the cortex
c. limbic system structures
d. past experiences w/ emotion-arousing stimuli
2.42 The James-Lange theory is classified as a peripheralist theory of emotion.
a. CORRECT - According to the James-Lange theory, "we are afraid because we run." IN other words, emotions are perceptions of bodily reactions.
b. Incorrect - This sounds more like Cannon-Bard theory, which emphasizes the brain mechs that mediate emotion (esp. the thalamus and cerebral cortex).
2.44 A needs assessmt ordinarily consists of 3 components. These are:
a. evaluative, formative, and summative analysis
b. job, person, and orgal analysis
c. unfreezing, changing, and refreezing
d. knowledge, skills, and abilities
2.44 A needs assessmt is conducted in orgs to det training needs.
b. CORRECT - A comprehensive needs assessmt incls an analysis of the job reqmts, the ppl perfing the job, and the goals of the org.
2.49 Research cfing reports of children's internalizing and externalizing behs has found considerable variability among informants. Stanger and Lewis (1993), for example, found that:
a. mothers and fathers report a similar no. of prob behs for their children while their children report a fewer no. of prob behs than their parents do
b. mothers and fathers report a similar no. of prob behs for their children while their children report a greater no. of prob behs than their parents do
c. mothers and their children report fewer prob behs than fathers do
d. fathers and their children report fewer prob behs than mothers do
2.49
b. CORRECT - Stanger and Lewis found that parents did not differ signifly in their reports of either externalizing or internalizing beh probs in their children but that their children reported a greater no. of probs than their parents did.
2.79 Sexual dimorphism refers to:
a. the rel status of ppl based on their gender
b. diffs in structure b/w males and females of the same species
c. having both male and female sexual characteristics
d. being sexually attracted to both males and females
2.79 The term sexual dimorphism is used to describe diffs in struct in males and females.
b. CORRECT - Gender diffs in height, weight, and muscle strength are examples of sexual dimorphism.
2.80 A middle-aged man w/ brain damage cannot pantomime motor movemts when requested to do so (e.g., cannot pretend to open a door w/ a key) but usu has less trouble perfing the same movemts when using actual objects. The damage causing this impairmt is most likely located in the man's:
a. left posterior parietal lobe
b. right posterior parietal lobe
c. left posterior temporal lobe
d. right posterior temporal lobe
2.80 The man's sxs are chracteristic of apraxis.
a. CORRECT - The condition described in this qn is a type of ideomotor (or limb) apraxia. It is caused by damage to the left posterior parietal lob and, conseqly, is also known as left parietal apraxia.
2.82 In family therapy, the adolescent daughter complains that she doesn't think she can change and she feels that doing what the therapist has requested is pointless. The therapist responds by saying, "Well, in that case, I think you shdn't even try." The therapist's response is an example of:
a. reactance
b. restraining
c. positioning
d. prescription
2.82 The therapist is using a paradoxical technique.
a. Incorrect - Reactance is not a paradoxical technique but refers to the tendency of ppl to do the oppos. of what they are asked to do, esp. when they feel their personal freedom is being threatened.
b. CORRECT - This technique (telling a client not to change) is referred to as restraining.
c. Incorrect - Positioning involves exaggerating the severity of the sx.
d. Incorrect - Prescription involves instructing the client to engage in the target beh, usu in an exaggerated form (e.g., "nag your spouse for at least 3 hrs each evening").
2.105 Which of the following wd help confirm a dx of AD while ruling out a dx of Dementia due to Head Trauma?
a. anterograde amnesia and retrograde amnesia appear at about the same time
b. anterograde amnesia appears first; after a period of time, retrograde amnesia appears
c. retrograde amnesia appears first and gradually worsens; after a period of time, anterograde amnesia appears
d. anterograde and retrograde amnesia appear at about the same time but the retrograde amnesia begs w/ impairmts in recent memory and then progresses to impairmts in remote memory
2.105 In Dementia due to Head Trauma, memory loss is usu not progressive, and it involves both anterograde and retrograde amnesia.
b. CORRECT - AD is a progressive degenerative DO that begs w/ anterograde amnesia (the inability to form new memories). The anterograde amnesia gradually worsens, and eventually, the indiv also exhibits retrograde amnesia.
2.107 A pt w/ which of the following Persy DOs is most likely to exhibit sxs that cd be erroneously interped as signs of depn?
a. Avoidant PD
b. Obsessive-Compulsive PD
c. Dependent PD
d. Narcissistic PD
2.107
a. Incorrect - Avoidant PD is more similar to Panic DO w/ Agoraphobia than Maj Depn.
b. Incorrect - Symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive PDdo not overlap w/ typical sxs of depn.
c. CORRECT - DSM-IV notes that a mood DO must be considered before assigning the dx of Dependent PD due to the similarity of several sxs (e.g., pessimism, self-doubt, and a sense of worthlessness).
d. Incorrect - DSM-IV notes that Narcissistic PD shares characteristics w/ mania and hypomania.
2.115 A child w/ ODD is least likely to exhibit which of the following:
a. freq argumts and conflicts with his/her parents
b. high deg of phys. aggression toward his/her peers
c. consisly blames others for his/her mistakes
d. views his/her probs as due to the unrealistic demands of others
2.115 ODD is characterized by a pattern of negativistic, hostile, and defiant behs for at least 6 mths.
b. CORRECT - Although children w/ this DO may exhibit verbal aggression, physical aggression (esp a high deg) is not characteristic and may suggest a co-dx of Conduct DO or other DO.
2.125 The psychoanalyst Adolph Stern provided the 1st orged clin. description of the borderline pt. Of the 10 basic characteristics Stern delinated, which of the following did he consider to be the most primary:
a. inhibited aggression
b. fixation
c. emotional dysregulation
d. narcissism
2.125 Stern described the borderline pt in terms of 10 basic characteristics. Only one is listed.
d. CORRECT - Stern considered the difficys experienced by the borderline pt to be 2ndary to narcissism and viewed narcissism as arising from a serious disturbance in the early mother-child relnship. (Note that other psychoanalytically-oriented theorists have identified other factors as being primary: Kernberg, for example, emphasizes the role of excessive aggression. Also note that, from the perspective of DSM-IV, the key features of Borderline Persy DO are instability and impulsivity.)
2.127 Parasuicide (i.e., attempted, but not completed, suicide) is least assoced with:
a. middle to upper SES
b. female gender
c. younger age (under 30)
d. divorce
2.127 There are a no. of diffs b/w ppl who attempt suicidce a/out actually killing themselves and those who do kill themselves.
a. CORRECT - The stats indic that suicide attempts are more likely among the lower social classes.
b. Incorrect - Females are more likely to attempt suicide; males to complete it.
c. Incorrect - Younger age is assoced w/ an inc'd risk for a suicide attempt.
d. Incorrect - Divorce, separation, and widowhd have all been linked w/ an inc'd risk for a suicide attempt.
2.157 In vivo flooding has been found to be an effective tx for Agoraphobia. Studies investigating the effects of in vivo flooding for this DO sugest that:
a. frequent, brief exposures are more effective than less frequent, longer exposures to the feared stimuli
b. ppl w/ high arousability are more responsive to in vivo tx than ppl w/ low arousability
c. high anxiety provocation is not the key factor in the effectiveness of in vivo flooding
d. counterconditioning is a necess component of in vivo flooding as a tx for agoraphobia
2.157 In vivo exposure to feared stimuli has been found to be the most effective tx for Agoraphobia. The goal of in vivo exposure is to exting the classically-conditioned response by exposing the person to the CS w/out the US.
a. Incorrect - This is oppos. of what is true.
b. Incorrect - Arousability has been linked to the effects of systematic desensitization, not in vivo flooding. Systematic desensitization is usu more successful for indivs low in arousability than for those high in arousability.
c. CORRECT - There is evidence that high anxiety arousal is NOT necess for successful tx w/ in vivo flooding.
d. Incorrect - Counterconditioning is not a component of in vivo flooding.
2.184 After several sessions w/ her therapist, a client starts acting toward the therapist as though he were the client's father. Assuming that the therapist is a practitioner of Gestalt therapy, he is most likely to respond to this transference by:
a. ignoring it
b. temporarily assuming the role of the client's father
c. helping the client see the diff b/w her transference and reality
d. helping the client understand how her past relnship w/ her father is affecting her current relnships w/ men
2.184 Gestalt therapy, unlike p-analytic p-therapy, focuses on the here-and-now rather than on the past. Thus, a Gestalt therapist is not likely to encourage a client's transference which brins an o'side (and often past) relnship into the current therapeutic sitn.
c. CORRECT - In Gestalt therapy, when a client exhibits transference, the therapist helps the client "come to his senses" by enabling him to "see and experience in vivid concrete detail the discrepancies b/w transference fantasies and reality ... to cut for a moment through the filtering fog of fantasy which he maintains around himself and exper. the reality of the person who sits across form him."
2.200 Al A., a lonely single, middle-aged psyc and college professor, is invted to a play by a grad student, Betty B., who Al finds sexually attractive. BEtty has returned to school after a 15-yr absence and has been divorced for 3 yrs. If Al accepts Betty's invitation, he will:
a. be acting unethically because the Ethics Code prohibits professors from dating students
b. not be acting unethically as long as he doesn't become sexually involved w/ Betty
c. not be acting unethically as long as Betty is a grad student in a dept other than the one Al teaches in
d. not be acting unethically because this sitn is not covered by the Ethics Code
2.200 Dating of students is addressed by 2 of the Ethical Stds. Std 3.05 discourages multiple relnships and sTd 7.07 prohibits sexual relnships w/ students over whom a psyc has direct or evaluative authority.
a. Incorrect - The ethics code does not explicitly prohibit psycs from dating all students; only those over whom they have evaluative authority. It also prohibits multiple relnships only when the relnship may harm or exploit the other person.
b. Incorrect - If Betty is a grad student in the psyc dept and/or is likely to be in one of Al's classes, dating her wd be prohibited by the multiple relnship clause.
c. CORRECT - If Betty is a student in another dept, it wd likely be acceptable for Al to accompany her to the play and even become involved w/ her.
D11 A therapist who focuses on a client's basic needs for power, affiliation, and fun is likely a
a. reality therapist
b. Gestalt therapist
c. transactional analyst
d. person-centered therapist
D11 A - according to the theory underlying reality therapy, psycal probs are due to an inability to responsibly and adeqly meet one's basic needs. These needs incl those for survival, belonging (or affiliation), power, fun, and freedom.
D28 Which age range has seen the greatest inc in suicide rates in recent yrs?
a. under 15
b. b/w 15 and 24
c. b/w 40 and 55
d. b/w 65 and 80
D28 B - This qn focuses specifically on which age grp is showing the greatest inc in the suicide rate, which is the 15 to 24 age grp.
D29 You dvp a program for pre-schl children who are at risk for learning disabilities. This is an e.g. of
a. primary prevention.
b. secondary prevention.
c. tertiary prevention.
d. advocacy consultation.
D29 A - Primary prevention is admined before the onset of a prob and is designed to prevent its dvpt. Educal progs for high-risk children are an e.g. of primary prevention.
D31 The diff b/w preopal and concrete opal thought is that
a. the preopal child is able to intuit, whereas the concrete opal child is not.
b. the concrete opal child has mastered conservation of the object, whereas the preopal child has not.
c. the concrete opal child is able to coordinate his thking into systems he can direct and control, whereas the preopal child is not.
d. the concrete opal child is not capable of representation, whereas the preopal child is.
D31 B - Piaget divided cog dvpt into 4 stages: sensorimotor, preopal, concrete opal, and formal opal. In the preopal stage, the child is unable to conserve, or recog that a change in the appearance of an object does not mean that the object's fundamtal properties have changed. e.g., a preopal child wd think that pouring water from a short, fat glass to a tall, thin one wd result in an inc in the amt of water. Conservation dvps in a predictable, sequential manner throughout the concrete opal phase.
D35 A beh that does not dvp unless cert. environmtal events are present during a ltd period of time illustrates the notion of
a. sensitive periods.
b. critical periods.
c. canalization.
d. maturation.
D35 B - A critical period is a ltd time period during which an organism is biol. preped to acq cert. behs but reqs the support of an approply stimulating environmt. A is incorrect because a sensitive period if an optimal time for a particular dvptal capacity to emerge; however, the capacity can dvpt at an earlier or later time.
D56 You are hired by a sheltered wkshop prog to do assessmts of mod to sev retarded adults. To obt the most reliable and valid estimates of fning w/ these clients, you wd use the
a. Vineland Social Maturity Inventory.
b. WAIS-III.
c. Peabody Picture Vocab Test (PPVT).
d. California Test of Mental Maturity (CTMM).
D56 A - The Vineland Scales are used to assess levels of adaptive fning in mentally retarded indivs. They are useful as part of the process of arriving at a dx of MR since such a dx reqs evid. of deficits in adaptive fning.
D61 A sx often noted in sev abusers of amphetamines is
a. visual hallucinations
b. amotivational syndrome
c. inc'd appetite
d. paranoid ideation
D61 D - Typical complications of Amphetamine Dependence incl paranoid ideation, as well as aggressive beh, anxiety, depn, and weight loss.
D62 The main disadv of abrupt termination of barbiturate addiction is the
a. mgmt of the resultant depn and agitation.
b. "REM rebound" phenomenon.
c. probability of seizures leading to death.
d. gen phys. distress that disposes the pt to resume his/her drug habit.
D62 C - Abrupt termination of barbiturate use can s-times cause a grand mal seizure, which can be fatal. Choices A, B, and D, can also occur, but C is the best answer because the qn says the "main disadv."
D66 Which of the following sxs is the most telling sign that a person who drinks heavily shd rec a DSM-IV dx of Substance Dependence?
a. morning drinking.
b. 3 arrests for drunk driving.
c. tolerance and w/drawal.
d. drinking more than a 1/2 bottle of liquor a day.
D66 C - Tolerance and w/drawal are among the dxic criteria for Substance Dependence. The other signs may occur in indivs w/ this dx, but are not actual dxic criteria.
D91 The purpose of State licensing boards is to
a. protect the public
b. set min. stds of practice
c. oversee the profession
d. educate the public
D91 A - The primary purpose of state licensing boards is to protect the public. They do this by, for example, ensuring that licensed psycs meet min stds of competence and taking action against psycs who engage in unprofessional conduct.
D95 A consulting psyc prints testimonials from former clients in a brochure advertising her services to corporations. According to the latest revision of the Ethical Principles, this is
a. ethical and legal.
b. unethical and illegal.
c. unethical, unless the testimonials were not solicited.
d. unethical, but legal.
D95 C - Ethical Stds prohibit psycs from soliciting testimonials from current p-therapy clients or other persons who are "vulnerable to undue influence." Because it is likely that former clients are vulnerable to undue influence, the practice described by the qn wd not be ethical unless the testimonials were unsolicited.
D100 You are seeing a teenager in therapy. The guidance counselor from the teenager's schl calls you requesting advice on how to deal w/ a recent incident at schl in which your client was involved. Your best course of action is to
a. politely inform the counselor that you cannot discuss any client until written permission from the client and the client's parents has been obted.
b. ask the counselor to describe the incident at schl, and then offer some gen. suggestions for dealing w/ the prob.
c. prov. some very limited info about your client, only in areas specifically relev. to the schl incident, to help the counselor help your client.
d. offer to come over to the schl as soon as poss. to talk over the incident w/ your client and pertinent schl personnel.
D100 A - Though there are some exceptions to a client's confidentiality rights, this sitn is not one of them. Therefore, permission from the client's parents wd be req'd before you cd speak to the school counselor.
D113 As a junior college counselor, your first choice of a vocational interest test to admin to a v. bright 20 yr old woman wd be the
a. Strong Interest Inventory
b. General Aptitude Test Battery
c. Kuder Occupational Interest Survey
d. Kuder Vocational Preference Record
D113 A - The STrong Interest Inventory is the approp int inventory to admin to indivs inted in business and professional occupations. It is reasonable to assume that a bright young person in a junior college wd be inted in pursuing these types of occupations. The Kuder Occupational Interest Survey is used for indivs w/ a wide array of intes; and the Kuder Vocational Preference Record assesses ints in 10 broad areas rather than in specific occupations. The General Aptitude Test Battery is not a vocational interest test.
D115 For personnel hiring progs, a test w/ low validity (e.g., .30) is considered adeq as long as
a. selection ratios are high
b. selection ratios are low
c. reliability figures are high
d. drop-out rates are low
D115 B - The utility of a job selection test refers to the benefit an org accrues from using the test as cfed to not using it. A low selection ratio (ratio of job openings to job applicants) is one factor that incs the utility of a job selection measure. Thus, if the selection ratio is low, this can compensate to some deg for a low validity coeff and the test might still be considered adeq.
D128 Chin and Benne divide planned change in orgs into 3 types:
a. autocratic, consultative, grp decision.
b. instrumtal, supportive, participative.
c. empirical-rational, normative-reeducative, power-coercive.
d. d-making, career path, responsibility
D128 C - Chin and Benne's 3 types of planned change are: empirical-rational - ppl are basically rational, and if they have the pertinent info, they will act in their self int; normative-reeducative - social norms underlie patterns of beh in orgs; and power-coercive - strats involving the use of rewards, punishmts, and legit. authority to coerce employees to comply w/ change.
D131 Which of the following schedules of reinforcemt produces a fairly even rate of perf. during acquisition and wd also be fairly resistant to extinction?
a. rewarding every fifth response.
b. rewarding a response everey five minutes.
c. rewarding responses randomly.
d. rewarding every response.
D131 C - VR schedule of reinforcemt, or a sched in which reinforcemt occurs after variable no. of responses. An e.g. of this type of sched is gambling, a beh that is s-times reinforced after v. few betting responses, but other times is not rewarded until after many responses. Cfed to beh acq'd on a FR schedule, a FI schedule, or a continuous sched, a VR sched produces beh that is more resistant to extinction.
D144 Theoretically, in order for a counterconditioning tx to be successful, which stmt is true?
a. The anxiety-evoking stimulus shd be sufficiently strong to overcome the S's reaction to the anxiety-neutralization stimulus.
b. The anxiety-neutralization stimulus is usu presented immed. after the anxiety-evoking stimulus is presented.
c. The anxiety-evoking stimlus shd be presented initially in attenuated forms, so that the stimulus value is less powerful than the anxiety-neutralizing stimulus.
d. Immed. in-vivo exposure to anxiety-evoking stimuli at the highest level of intensity is much more effective than graded exposure.
D144 C - In counterconditionin, a maladaptive response (usu. anxiety) is paired w/ an adaptive response (usu. relaxation) that is incompatible w/ the maladaptive response. Systematic desensitization is an application of counterconditioning. When counterconditioning is used, it is imp. to grad. expose the person to the anxiety-evoking stimuli. Otherwise, the anxiety will be so overwhelming that the person will not be able to learn the necess. relaxation response.
D145 Primary memory is equiv to
a. secondary memory.
b. long-term memory.
c. STM
d. autobiographical memory
D145 C - Primary memory is also often referred to as STM. 2ndary memory is another term for LTM which, in practice, is anything remembered more than few minutes. Autobiog memory is a specific type of LTM that incls events that happened to an indiv. These memories are explicit and episodic.
D158 The NT most assoced w/ voluntary muscle movemts is
a. NE
b. 5HT
c. ACh
d. DA
D158 C - Ach is the NT involved in neural signals to the vol. muscles.
D159 The ARAS produces its effects on motivation by
a. channeling sensory input to the proper region of the cortex.
b. providing diffuse facilitation to the entire cortex.
c. inhibiting irrelev. input from the receptors.
d. providing generalized facilitation to all of the muscles.
D159 B - The ascending RAS is involved in behal arousal. It screens input to the brain and provs diffuse stimulation to the entire cortex when important info must be processed.
D160 If elderly pts are given chlorpromazine for an extended period of time, the most likely side effect wd be
a. tardive dyskinesia
b. PD
c. Huntington's Chorea
d. difficys sleeping
D160 A - Tardive dyskinesia, or invol rhythmic movemts, is a side effect of neuroleptics (antipsychotics). Chlorpromazine (also known as Thorazine) is an e.g. of a neuroleptic.
D174 What is one of the effects of estrogen replacement therapy?
a. inc'd mood swings
b. reduced libido
c. inc'd vaginal dryness
d. inc'd risk of osteoporosis
D174 B - Estrogen Replacemt Therapy rather than incing libido, may in fact dec it. The oppos. is true of the other choices; ERT may reduce mood swings, vaginal dryness, and risk of osteoporosis.
D189 A youngster dvps the habit of cleaning his rm every wkend. As his father notices this, he begs to give the boy a dollar reward for cleaning his rm. The boy then becomes unwilling to clean his rm unless he is pd for it. This paradoxical result cd be most readily explained by
a. behal learning theory
b. paradoxical intention.
c. attribution theory.
c. double-blind theory.
D189 C - The result can be explained by the overjustification hypothesis which is an outgrowth of attribution theory. According to this hypothesis, when external motivation is offered for a task that a person is intrinsically inted in, the person's int in the task decs.
D190 Social loafing wd be demonstrated by which of the following:
a. you type a report more quickly when your co-wker is in the rm.
b. the same report takes longer to complete when there is a grpwking on it rather than when each member wks indivly.
c. the grp wking on the report decides to demand a raise or go on strike as soon as the report is finished.
d. everyone calls in sick on the day you were all assigned to beg wk on the report.
D190 B - Social loafing is the phenom of declining productivity when ppl are wking together as a grp. A is the defn of social facilitation - the presence of others improves perf. on simple tasks, C is grp polarization - grps of like minded indivs tend to make more risky decisions than grp members wd make indivly, and D is e.g. of just plain loafing.
A test dvper is designing a test to select scholarship recipients from among the gen. population of high schl seniors. He wd probably prefer a test w/ an average item difficy index of around
a. .50
b. .70
c. .90
d. .30
D - An item's difficy level is the % of examinees who answer the item correctly. A test designed to choose scholarship recipients shd have fairly diffic items. Of the choices listed, a test with an average item difficy level of .30 (indicing that the average qn is answered correctly by 30% of examinees) is most difficult.