Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Ovarian/Adnexal cystic mass:
ectopic pregnancy, hemorrhagic cyst, tubovarian abscess, cystic neoplasm, endometrioma
Paratubal adhesions by HSG (obstructed tube or loculated contrast collection outside tube):
scaring secondary to PID, endometriosis
Adrenal masses:
tumor - adenoma, mets (esp small cell), pheochromocytoma, lymphoma, neuroblastoma, carcinoma, hemangioma; fatty – adenoma, myelolipoma, lipoma; cystic – simple cyst, pseudocyst from hemorrhage; other – hemorrhage, TB, Wolman’s disease; bilateral – hemorrhage, mets, lymphoma, bilateral pheochromocytoma (MEN2, VHL, NF), TB, histo, adenomas, hyperplasia
Renal mass lesions:
tumor – solid, cysts; infection – lobar nephronia, abscess, XGP; congenital – duplicated collecting system; pseudotumors – fetal lobulation, dromedary hump, column of Bertin; trauma - hematoma
Solid renal neoplasm:
RCC, oncocytoma, adenoma, AML, TCC, mets (lung, colon, melanoma, RCC), lymphoma, Wilms, mesoblastic nephroma, nephroblastomatosis, MFH
Cystic renal masses:
tumor – cystic RCC, multilocular cystic nephroma, cystic Wilm’s, cystic mets; true cysts – cortical cysts, localized cystic disease, medullary cystic disease, ADPKD, VHL, TS, endstage renal failure, hemorrhagic or infected cyst; other – hydronephrosis/duplicated system, renal artery aneurysm, abscess
Hyperechoic renal mass:
AML, RCC, milk of calcium cyst, nephritis (XGP, emphysematous pyelonephritis, focal nephritis, Candida), hematoma, infarction, mimics (renal sinus fat, duplicated collecting system)
Renal sinus mass:
TCC, RCC, lymphoma, papilloma, renal artery aneurysm, renal sinus hemorrhage, complicated parapelvic cyst
Wedge-shaped renal lesion:
renal mets, infarction, lobar nephritis
Infiltrative renal:
TCC, mets, lymphoma, infarction, pyelonephritis, XGP
Diffusely hyperechoic kidneys:
glomerulonephritis, DM, HTN, AIDS nephropathy, SLE, vasculitis, ATN, HUS, multiple myeloma, endstage renal failure, medullary or cortical nephrocalcinosis, ARPKD
Renal calcifications:
tumors – cysts, RCC; infection – TB; metastatic calcification – medullary nephrocalcinosis, cortical nephrocalcinosis; collecting system – calculi
Fat in kidney:
AML, lipoma, replacement lipomatosis
Hypoechoic perirenal fat:
normal variant, perirenal hemorrhage, cyst rupture, SLE, PAN
Filling defect in collecting system:
tumor – TCC, papilloma, leukoplakia, malakoplakia; mobile filling defect – blood clot, sloughed papillae, calculus, fungus ball; other – vascular impression, overlying bowel gas
Papillary necrosis:
POSTCARD – pyelonephritis, obstruction, sickle cell, TB, cirrhosis, analgesics, RVT, DM
Delayed (persistent) nephrogram:
prerenal – RAS, hypotension; renal – acute glomerulonephritis, ATN (contrast, ischemia, transplants), acute cortical necrosis (pregnancy, sepsis, dehydration), tubular precipitation (uric acid, hemolysis, myeloma), acute interstitial nephritis (antibiotics), papillary necrosis, RVT; postrenal – obstruction (stone, stricture); rule of thumb – symmetric bilateral is medical disease, asymmetric unilateral is surgical
Striated nephrogram:
acute pyelonephritis, renal contusion, RVT, ureteral obstruction, medullary sponge kidney
Large kidney with spindled calices:
lymphoma, leukemia, pyelonephritis, acute RA occlusion, acute RVT, acute obstruction
Normal size kidney with spindled calices:
multiple cysts (parapelvic or peripelvic), renal sinus lipomatosis
Hypodense rim:
acute cortical necrosis, perinephric lymphoma
Subcapsular rim sign:
infarct, ATN, RVT
Extracalyceal contrast:
striations – medullary sponge kidney, early papillary necrosis, pyelosinus or pyelovenous backflow in obstruction, interstitial edema; focal collections – late papillary necrosis, calyceal diverticulum, cavity from cyst rupture, abscess
Dilated calyces/collecting system:
obstruction, papillary necrosis, congenital megacalyces, calyceal diverticulum, reflux
Bilaterally enlarged kidneys:
ADPKD, lymphoma, glomerulonephritis, HIV, amyloid, bilateral RVT
Bilaterally small kidneys:
chronic inflammation, bilateral RAS, chronic reflux, ESRD
Unilateral renal atrophy (smooth):
chronic ischemia (RAS, RVT), postobstructive atrophy, renal hypoplasia, chronic subcapsular hematoma, radiation
Unilateral renal atrophy (irregular):
reflux nephropathy, analgesic nephropathy, DM
Renal TB:
parenchymal calcs, putty kidney, papillary necrosis, tuberculoma, scarring, mucosal irregularity, infundibular stenosis, amputated calyx, corkscrew ureter, purse-string stenosis of renal pelvis, pipestem ureter, calculi, small contracted thick-walled bladder, urethral fistulas (watering can perineum)
parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia, Addison disease, milk alkali, sarcoid, carcinomatosis, HPT, myeloma, immobilization, vitD, thiazides
Cortical nephrocalcinosis:
chronic glomerulonephritis, cortical necrosis (pregnancy, shock, sepsis, toxins), AIDS nephropathy, Alport’s, oxalosis, chronic transplant rejection
Medullary nephrocalcinosis:
HPT, RTA, medullary sponge kidney, papillary necrosis, Lasix therapy in kids
Renal vein thrombosis:
tumor - RCC, Wilm’s, lymphoma, TCC, adrenal, gonadal, pancreatic CA, extraluminal compression by retroperitoneal tumor; renal disease – membranous glomerulonephritis, SLE, amyloid; other – hypercoagulable state, extension of ovarian vein or IVC thrombosis, trauma, surgery, transplant complication, dehydration in kids
Dilated ureter:
criteria - >8mm, ureter visible in entire length, no peristaltic waves; obstruction – primary megaureter (functional), ureteral stricture, calculus, BOO, urethral stricture; reflux; diuresis
Ureteral stricture:
tumor – TCC, mets, lymphadenopathy; inflammatory – TB (corkscrew appearance), Schistosomiasis, Crohn’s, PID; congenital – ectopic ureterocele, primary megaureter, congenital stenosis; metabolic, drugs – amyloid, morphine, methysergide (retroperitoneal fibrosis); trauma – iatrogenic, radiation; vascular – aneurysm, ovarian vein syndrome, lymphocele, crossing vessel
Multiple ureteral filling defects:
wall – ureteritis cystica (more common in upper ureter), vascular impressions, multiple papillomas, melanoma mets, submucosal hemorrhage, fibroepithelial polyp (single); luminal (acute angles) – calculi, blood clot, sloughed papillae, fungus ball, air bubbles, TCC
Ureteral diverticula:
congenital, pseudodiverticulosis, TB (also strictures)
Deviated ureters:
lateral – bulky RP adenopathy, primary RP tumors, RP fluid collection, aneurysm, malrotated kidney, ovarian or uterine mass; medial – posterior bladder diverticulum (#1 cause of distal medial deviation), fibroids, RP fibrosis, postoperative, enlarged prostate, retrocaval ureter (only on R side)
Bladder wall thickening:
criteria - >5mm, trabeculations; tumor – TCC, lymphoma; inflammation – radiation, cytoxan, infection, IBD, appendicitis, diverticulitis; BOO – BPH, PUV, ectopic ureterocele, urethral stricture; neurogenic
Bladder filling defect:
tumor – TCC, SCC, mets, leiomyoma, endometriosis, polyps; infection – PID, Schistosomiasis, fungus ball, leukoplakia, malacoplakia, cystitis cystica, cystitis glandularis; luminal – calculi, blood clot, BPH, foreign body, ureterocele, pseudoureterocele; adjacent inflammatory process e.g. appendicitis or divertiticulitis; rare – amyloid
Bladder neoplasm:
TCC, SCC, adenocarcinoma, leiomyoma, pheochromocytoma, mets (melanoma, prostate), lymphoma, urachal adenoCA (dome); risk factors: TCC – smoking, cytoxan, radiation, interstitial nephritis, aniline dyes, phenacetin; SCC – Schistosomiasis, calculi, chronic infection, leukoplakia; adenoCA – bladder exstrophy, urachal remnant, cystitis glandularis
Bladder wall calcification:
SCRITT – Schistosomiasis, cytoxan, radiation, interstitial cystitis, TB, TCC
Air in bladder:
instrumentation, catheter, bladder fistula (diverticulitis, Crohn’s, colon CA), emphysematous cystitis (DM)
Teardrop bladder:
normal variant, iliopsoas hypertrophy, hematoma, abscess, lymphoma, pelvic lipomatosis, RP fibrosis, IVC obstruction
Bladder fistulas:
diverticulitis, Crohn’s, CA, surgery, radiation
Bladder diverticula
congenital (Hutch, urachal), acquired (BOO)
Bladder rupture:
trauma, radiation, tumor, cystitis, neurogenic bladder
“Female prostate”:
central filling defect at base of bladder; urethral diverticulum, urethral tumor, periurethritis, pubic bone lesion
Urethral stricture:
GC, trauma, iatrogenic
Adrenal calcifications:
tumor – neuroblastoma, pheochromocytoma, carcinoma, myelolipoma, hemangioma; infection – TB, histo, meningococcemia; trauma – hemorrhage; congenital – Wolman’s, Addison’s; cyst
Adrenal pseudotumors:
gastric fundus, varices, tortuous splenic artery, pancreatic tail, medial splenic lobulation
Large retroperitoneal mass:
hematoma, abscess, adenopathy from lymphoma or mets, liposarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, MFH, neurogenic tumor, germ cell tumor
Retroperitoneal hematoma:
anticoagulation, trauma, iatrogenic, ruptured AAA, RCC, AML
Retroperitoneal air:
trauma (perforation), ERCP, emphysematous pyelonephritis
Retroperitoneal abscess:
pancreatitis, renal inflammatory disease, osteomyelitis
Retroperitoneal fibrosis:
idiopathic, methysergide, radiation, surgery, lymphoma, mets, retroperitoneal fluid, inflammation from other organs