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136 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Esophagus Diverticular disease:
pharyngocele, Zenker, Killian Jamieson, traction, pulsion, pseudodiverticula, epiphrenic
Esophagus Luminal narrowing:
webs, Plummer-Vinson, vascular ring, Schatzki ring, strictures (reflux, meds, skin lesions, tumor, mets, radiation, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, Crohn’s, lye, Barrett’s, infection, NGT, achalasia, scleroderma, Chagas), extrinsic compression (aorta, left bronchus, left atrium, mediastinal tumor)
Esophagus High stricture:
Barrett’s, radiation, caustic ingestion, CA, mets, meds, skin dz, Crohn’s
Esophagus Low stricture:
peptic stricture, lower esophageal ring, Barrett’s
Esophagus Nodules/plaques:
diffuse - reflux, Candida, glycogenic acanthosis; localized – Candida, superficial spreading CA, Barrett’s
Esophagus Ulcers:
distal – reflux, Crohn’s; small, mid – herpes, medications (tetracycline, doxycycline, KCl, iron, quinidine, NSAIDs, vit C, Fosamax), Crohn’s; giant – CMV, HIV
Esophagus Megaesophagus:
achalasia, scleroderma, distal narrowing from tumor or stricture, Chagas
Esophagus Contrast extravasation:
esophagitis, tumor, vomiting (MW tear, Boerhaave), TE fistula, foregut duplication cyst with communication to esophagus, iatrogenic, trauma
Esophagus Solitary filling defects:
intraluminal – food impaction, foreign body, fibrovascular polyp, spindle cell tumor, leiomyosarcoma, adenocarcinoma; tumor – leiomyoma, fibrovascular polyp, duplication cyst, papilloma, fibroma, hemangioma, SCC, adenocarcinoma, spindle cell tumor, lymphoma, mets (breast, lung, KS, melanoma, RCC); varices – uphill (portal HTN), downhill (SVC obstruction); extrinsic – lymph nodes, engorged vessels, aneurysms, cysts
Esophagus Thickened folds:
esophagitis, lymphoma, varicoid carcinoma, varices
Esophagus Air-fluid level:
hiatal hernia, esophageal diverticulum, CA, achalasia, scleroderma
Feline esophagus:
reflux, motor disorders
Corkscrew esophagus:
diffuse esophageal spasm, presbyesophagus
Stomach Antral lesions:
gastritis secondary to PUD, adenocarcinoma, lymphoma (more frequently crosses the pylorus than adenoCA…but adenoCA is more frequent a cancer), Crohn’s, TB, mets, ectopic pancreas, caustics sarcoid, HPS, pylorospasm, antral web,
Stomach Emphysematous gastritis:
recent endoscopy, infectious gastritis with hemolytic strep or clostridium, corrosive ingestion, PUD, gastric outlet obstruction, pulmonary disease
Stomach Gastritis:
H pylori, erosive gastritis (corrosives, alcohol, stress, NSAIDS), granulomatous (Crohn’s, sarcoid, TB, histo, syphilis), eosinophilic, hypertrophic (Menetrier’s, ZE syndrome), recurrent gastric ulcer (ZE syndrome, PUD, drugs), radiation
Stomach Target lesions:
gastritis (aphthoid type) – erosive (NSAID, alcohol), Crohn’s, infection (Candida, herpes, CMV); submucosal mets (large ulcer) – melanoma, KS > breast, lung, lymphoma; solitary giant bullseye (very large ulcer) – leiomyoma, sarcoma, CA, solitary met, ectopic pancreas, benign ulcer
Stomach Filling defect:
bezoar, adenocarcinoma, lymphoma, leiomyosarcoma, mets, KS, endometriosis, carcinoid, leiomyoma, lipoma, polyps (hyperplastic #1), varices, ectopic pancreas, extrinsic compression from spleen/pancreas/liver
Stomach Giant rugal folds:
lymphoma, Menetrier’s, ZE syndrome, gastritis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, radiation, infection, Crohn’s, mets, varices (mimic)
Stomach Linitis plastica:
scirrhous CA (#1), lymphoma, mets (esp breast), pancreatic CA (direct invasion), radiation, Crohn’s, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, corrosive ingestion, TB, sarcoid, syphilis
Double pylorus:
lesser curve antral ulcer, Crohn’s, lymphoma
Gastroenteric fistula:
PUD, Crohn’s, CA, iatrogenic, surgery
Stomach Free air
surgery and laparoscopy, perforated ulcer, perforated distal bowel (IBD, diverticulitis, tumor)
Stomach UGI surgery:
plication defect, marginal ulcer, bezoar, chronic gastritis, leak, obstruction, intussusception (jejunogastric), gastric CA, afferent loop syndrome, malabsorption
Duodenum Duodenal bulb filling defec(s)
ectopic gastric mucosa (tiny), benign lymphoid hyperplasia (tiny), Brunner gland hyperplasia (1 cm or so), prolapsed antral mucosa, pancreatic rests, varices, benign tumor (GIST, neurofibroma, adenomas), duodenitis, Crohn’s, lymphoma, polyposis (Peutz Jehger, Cronkite-Canada, familial polyposis)
Duodenum Soft and changing duodenal filling defect–
choledochocele, lipoma, duplication cyst
Duodenum 2nd portion narrowing –
pancreatitis, annular pancreas, ampullary inflammation (impacted stone), ampullary adenoCA
Duodenum Filling defects:
benign (often 1st portion, asx) – adenoma, leiomyoma, lipoma, villous adenoma, ectopic pancreas; malignant (often distal to 1st portion, sx) – adenocarcinoma at or distal to papilla, leiomyosarcoma, lymphoma, mets (melanoma, breast, KS, carcinoid); distal – benign lymphoid hyperplasia, ectopic pancreas, annular pancreas, ampulla of Vater, tumor, edema with impacted or passed gallstone, choledochocele;
Duodenum Target lesion:
leiomyoma, leiomyosarcoma, met (melanoma, KS, breast, lung, lymphoma), ulcer, ZE syndrome
Duodenum Luminal outpouchings:
ulcer, diverticulum, choledochoduodenal or cholecystoduodenal fistula
Duodenum Reverse figure 3 sign:
pancreatitis, pancreatic CA
Duodenum Notched duodenum:
annular pancreas, post-bulbar ulcer, Crohn’s, post-op, pancreatitis, pancreatic CA
Duodenum Postbulbar narrowing:
adenocarcinoma, lymphoma, mets, postbulbar ulcer, duodenitis, Crohn’s, pancreatitis (extrinsic), pancreatic CA, annular pancreas, intramural diverticulum, duodenal duplication cyst, duodenal hematoma, aortic aneurysm, SMA syndrome (seen in scleroderma, lymphoma)
Duodenum Papillary enlargement:
>15mm; normal variant, choledochocele, papillary edema (pancreatitis, acute duodenal ulcer, impacted stone), ampullary CA
Jejunum and Ileum Adynamic ileus:
postoperative (#1); inflammatory (often sentinel loop) – pancreatitis, appendicitis, cholecystitis, diverticulitis, peritonitis; metabolic – low K+, Ca++, Mg++; medication – morphine
Jejunum and Ileum Mechanical SBO:
adhesion, hernia, tumor, gallstone, inflammation with strictures
Jejunum and Ileum Malabsorption patterns:
dilatation, dilution, delay; predominantly thick/irregular folds – Whipple’s, MAI, Strongyloides (proximal), amyloid, Giardia (jejunum), GVH, Cryptosporidium (jejunum), lymphoma, lymphangiectasia, mastocytosis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis; predominantly dilated loops and normal folds – sprue (#1), obstruction, ileus, scleroderma, medication
Jejunum and Ileum Thick folds without malabsorption pattern:
criteria – folds >3mm, uniformly thickened if diffuse, nodular thickening (pinkyprinting) if focal with stack of coins appearance; submucosal edema – ischemia, infection, radiation, hypoproteinemia, GVH; submucosal tumor – lymphoma, leukemia, submucosal hemorrhage – Henoch-Schonlein purpura, hemophilia, anticoagulation
Jejunum and Ileum Tubular bowel:
Cryptosporidium, sprue (proximal), lymphoma, GVH, radiation, ischemia, Strongyloides (proximal)
Jejunum and Ileum Nodules:
mastocytosis, nodular lymphoid hyperplasia, lymphoma, mets, polyps, Crohn’s, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, TB, infection, amyloid, lymphangiectasia, Whipple’s, Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia
Jejunum and Ileum Diffuse tiny nodules:
lymphoid hyperplasia (#1), hypogammaglobulinemia, Giardia, Whipple’s, Waldenstrom’s
Jejunum and Ileum Small bowel tumors:
benign – adenoma (#1), leiomyoma (#2), lipoma, hemangioma, neurogenic tumors, Brunner gland hyperplasia, heterotopic pancreatic tissue; malignant – mets (melanoma, RCC, breast, KS), lymphoma, carcinoid (#1 primary tumor), leiomyosarcoma (large ulcerating), adenocarcinoma; polyposis syndromes
Jejunum and Ileum Small bowel stricture:
Crohn’s, lymphoma, mets, infection, radiation, ischemia, adenoCA, extrinsic compression, NSAIDs; focal stricture with shouldering – adenoCA (#1), breast mets, TB
Jejunum and Ileum Coiled spring:
intussusception, intramural hematoma
Jejunum and Ileum Large ulcerated mass (endoexoenteric):
lymphoma, leiomyosarcoma, mets (melanoma), interloop abscess
Jejunum and Ileum Diverticula:
small bowel, Meckel’s
Jejunum and Ileum Intraluminal filling defects:
parasites (Ascaris, tapeworm), bezoar, foreign body, gallstone, lipoma
Jejunum and Ileum Enteric fistulas:
Crohn’s, diverticulitis, CA, TB, radiation, surgery, iatrogenic
Jejunum and Ileum Serosal
carcinoid, serosal mets, diverticulitis, appendicitis, endometriosis
Jejunum and Ileum Mesenteric bowel ischemia:
occlusive – emboli (afib, LV aneurysm), arterial thrombosis (atherosclerosis), venous thrombosis (portal HTN, pancreatitis, tumor, hypercoagulable state, drugs); nonocclusive – low flow state
Jejunum and Ileum Shortened transit time:
anxiety, hyperthyroid, medication (reglan), partial SBO
Colon Pneumatosis coli:
pneumatosis intestinalis – mucosal tear (iatrogenic), mucosal necrosis secondary to infarction/inflammation (IBD)/infection (C. diff), NEC, toxic megacolon, typhlitis; pneumatosis intestinalis cystica – subserosal blebs related to bronchovascular pathways to reteroperitoneum to mesentery to bowel (Macklin’s pathway): COPD, asthma, CF, iatrogenic, CVD, steroids
Colon Bowel wall thickening (thumbprinting):
edema – ischemia, infectious (pseudomembranous colitis, CMV, E Coli, Salmonella, Shigella, amebiasis, typhlitis), IBD; hemorrhage – anticoagulation, Henoch-Schonlein purpura, hemophilia; tumor – lymphoma, leukemia
Colon Crohn’s:
fold thickening, wall thickening, nodular pattern (cobblestone), string sign, aphthoid ulcers, filiform polyps, sinus tracts and fistulas, mesenteric fat stranding, creeping fat, lymphadenopathy, separated bowel loop (omega sign), pseudosacculations, strictures, asymmetric, skip lesions
Colon UC:
ahaustral, granular mucosa, filiform polyps, starts in rectum, continuous spread, backwash ileitis, crypt abscesses, strictures (worrisome)
Colon Mass lesions:
normal lymphofollicular pattern, pneumatosis coli, colitis cystica profunda, amyloid, endometriosis, ischemic colitis, polyps, polyposis syndromes, lipoma, leiomyoma, hemangioma, villous adenoma, adenocarcinoma, mets, lymphoma, hemorrhoids
Colon Polypoid filling defects:
polyps - hyperplastic (#1), adenomatous (#2), hamartomatous, post-inflammatory; polyposis – FAP, Peutz-Jeghers, juvenile polyposis, Turcot, Cronkhite-Canada, Cowden; lymphoma; pneumatosis
Colon Carpet lesion:
villous adenoma, adenoCA, polyposis, endometriosis, varices
Colon Colonic urticaria:
herpes, Yersinia, allergy, Crohn’s, ischemia
Colon Aphthoid ulcers:
Crohn’s, amebiasis, Behcet’s, CMV, herpes, TB, Yersinia (TI)
Colon Deep ulcers:
UC, Crohn’s, Behcet’s, infectious (amebiasis, TB, Salmonella, Shigella, histo, Candida, herpes, CMV), ischemic colitis, radiation
Colon Circumferential (apple core) or asymmetric narrowing:
tumor – adenocarcinoma, serosal mets (stomach, ovarian, colon, pancreas); inflammation – diverticulitis, IBD, TB, amebiasis; other – endometriosis, pelvic abscess, epiploic appendagitis; multifocal – lymphoma, serosal mets, TB, amebiasis, Crohn’s, endometriosis
Colon Long segment narrowing:
scirrhous adenocarcinoma, lymphoma, UC, Crohn’s, ischemic stricture, radiation
Colon Ahaustral colon:
cathartic abuse (usu R colon), UC, Crohn’s, amebiasis, aging (usu L colon), scleroderma, radiation, prior ischemia
Colon Pseudosacculations:
Crohn’s, scleroderma, ischemia
Colon Obstruction:
CA, diverticulitis, volvulus, impaction, hernia
Colon Megacolon:
toxic megacolon – pseudomembranous colitis, UC, Crohn’s, amebiasis; acute distension – obstructive CA, ileus, volvulus; chronic – laxative abuse, Ogilvie syndrome, congenital Hirschsprung’s, Chagas, neuromuscular disorders (Parkinson, DM, scleroderma, amyloid), hypothyroid
Colon Adult intussusception:
usu ileoileal; tumors – polyps, lipoma, mets, lymphoma, carcinoid; idiopathic, Meckel’s diverticulum, feeding tube; no lead point consider sprue, scleroderma, Whipple’s
Colon Coned cecum:
Crohn’s, lymphoma, mets, TB, amebiasis, typhlitis
Colon Ileocecal deformities:
Crohn’s, UC, amebiasis (spares TI), TB, typhlitis, lymphoma, adenocarcinoma, carcinoid, intussusception
Colon Enlarged ileocecal valve:
>3cm; lipomatous infiltration (#1), lipoma, Crohn’s, lymphoma, prolapsing ileal neoplasms
Colon Cecal filling defect and nonfilling appendix:
carcinoid, appendicitis, appendix stump, mucocele
Colon Fat containing mass adjacent to colon
epiploic appendagitis, omental infarction
Colon Proctitis:
Condyloma acuminata, lymphogranuloma venereum, GC, UC, Crohn’s, HIV, herpes
Colon Rectal involvement:
serosal mets, TOA, radiation, appendicitis, diverticulitis, endometriosis
Colon Presacral space widening:
>2cm; rectal inflammation (colitis, radiation), infection, tumor, pelvic lipomatosis, edema hemorrhage
Liver Solid masses:
hemangioma, FNH, adenoma, HCC, mets, regenerating nodules, focal fatty deposition, lymphoma
Liver Cystic masses:
infectious – pyogenic abscess, amebiasis, Echinococcus; benign – simple cysts, ADPKD, biliary cystadenoma, biloma, intrahepatic GB; malignant – necrotic tumors, cystic mets, cholangioCA
Liver Increased density:
hemochromatosis, glycogen storage disease, Wilson’s, amiodarone, chemotherapy, thorotrast, anemia, regenerative nodules in cirrhosis (low T2)
Liver Decreased density:
fatty liver – obesity, alcohol, DM, steroids, chemotherapy; radiation-induced
Liver Mottled density without focal mass:
passive congestion, Budd-Chiari, geographic fatty infiltration, hepatoma, lymphoma
Liver Hypervascular:
hemangioma, hemangioendothelioma, cholangioCA, HCC, mets (islet cell, melanoma, carcinoid, RCC, thyroid, breast, sarcoma)
Liver Hyperechoic:
round – hemangioma, hyperechoic mets (hypervascular and calcified mets), HCC, fibrolamellar HCC, focal fat, lipoma, AML, Gaucher’s; linear – pneumobilia, PV gas, biliary ascariasis; multiple punctate foci – hepatitis, granulomatous infection, PCP, biliary hamartomas, pneumobilia, PV gas, vascular calcs
Liver Multiple hypoechoic:
tumor – mets, lymphoma, HCC; infection – pyogenic, amebic, Echinococcus, Candida, Schistosomiasis; other – regenerative nodules in cirrhosis, sarcoid, extramedullary hematopoiesis, hematomas, hemangiomas
Liver Hepatic hemorrhage:
iatrogenic, trauma, adenoma, HCC, pregnancy
Liver Gas in liver:
pneumobilia – ERCP, surgery, penetrating ulcer, gallstone ileus, CA, bowel obstruction; PV air – bowel necrosis > IBD, abscess, obstruction, ulcer, NEC, iatrogenic, liver transplant; abscess; emphysematous cholecystitis
Liver Delayed retention of contrast:
cholangioCA, hemangioma, fibrous tumor, scar (FNH, adenoma, fibrolamellar HCC, hemangioma)
Biliary system: Gallbladder filling defects:
stones, polyps, adenomyomatosis, blood clots, varices, mets (melanoma, lymphoma, breast CA); if solitary, consider papilloma or adenoma
Biliary system: Extrahepatic biliary dilatation:
intrapancreatic (#1) – pancreatic CA, calculus, chronic pancreatitis; suprapancreatic – cholangioCA, metastatic lymph nodes; portal – cholangioCA, GB CA, surgical strictures, hepatoma; choledochal cyst
Biliary system:Types of obstruction:
tumor – abrupt termination of duct, mass adjacent to duct; pancreatitis -–smooth, long tapering; lithiasis-related – calculus visible, meniscus sign, intrahepatic dilatation; cholangitis – sclerosing, AIDS, oriental; Caroli’s; biliary cystadenoma
Biliary system:Double duct sign:
dilated BD and PD; pancreatitis, pancreatic CA, stone impacted in ampulla, cholangioCA, duodenal or ampullary CA
Biliary system:Filling defects in bile duct:
stone, blood clot, parasite, sludge, tumor
Biliary system:Hemobilia:
iatrogenic, tumor, trauma, infection
Biliary system:Strictures on ERCP:
hilum – cholangioCA, porta hepatis nodes, GB CA; 1cm from ampulla – pancreatic CA, cholangioCA, mets; long segment – chronic pancreatitis, lymphoma; CHD at cystic duct region – Mirizzi’s, GB CA, cholangioCA; multiple intrahepatic – sclerosing cholangitis, HIV, ischemic, primary biliary cirrhosis, liver mets (rare); multiple intrahepatic and extrahepatic -–sclerosing cholangitis, HIV, ischemia
Biliary system:Irregular wall and filling defects:
cholangitis – HIV, oriental, ascending
Biliary system:Pancreatic duct:
stricture – pancreatic CA, chronic pancreatitis; cystic dilatation and side branches – chronic pancreatitis, IPMT; variants - annular pancreas, pancreas divisum
Biliary system: Cholecystectomy leaks:
cystic duct remnant, duct of Luschka
Biliary system: GB wall thickening:
>3mm; diffuse – nonfasting GB, acute cholecystitis, chronic cholecystitis, portal HTN, hypoalbuminemia, hepatitis, AIDS (cryptosporidium, CMV, MAI), ascites; focal – GB CA, mets (melanoma), cholesterol polyps, adenomyomatosis, tumefactive sludge, AIDS
Biliary system: GB wall hyperechoic foci:
calculus, polyp, cholesterol, emphysematous cholecystitis, porcelain GB
Biliary system: Dense gallbladder:
vicarious excretion of contrast, calculi, milk of calcium, oral cholecystogram, hemorrhage
Biliary system: Biliary enteric fistula:
cholecystitis (gallstone ileus), PUD, tumor, trauma, surgery, Crohn’s
Pancreas:
causes - biliary stones, alcohol, drugs, hyperlipidemia, infection, trauma; complications – necrosis, pseudocyst, abscess, splenic artery pseudoaneurysm, splenic vein thrombosis
Pancreas: Focal pancreatic signal abnormality:
tumor, focal pancreatitis, adenopathy
Pancreas: Cystic lesions:
tumor – microcystic adenoma, mucinous cystadenoma, IPMT, solid/cystic and papillary epithelial neoplasm, cystic islet cell tumor; cyst – simple, pseudocyst, ADPKD, VHL, duct ectasia; abscess
Pancreas: Hyperechoic pancreas:
CF, pancreatic lipomatosis
Pancreas: Hypervascular:
islet cell tumor, hypervascular mets
Pancreas: Hypovascular:
adenocarcinoma, focal chronic pancreatitis
Spleen: Most common focal splenic lesions:
acquired cyst (remote trauma), epidermoid, hemangioms
Spleen: Anatomic variations:
accessory spleen, lobulations, wandering spleen, polyspenia, asplenia, splenosis (s/p trauma)
Spleen: Focal splenic lesions:
tumor – mets (lymphoma, melanoma), hemangioma, lymphangioma, hamartoma; infection (often calcified) – abscess, Candida, TB, MAI, Schistosomiasis, PCP; other – infarct, septic emboli, hematoma, cyst (simple, hydatid) pancreatic pseudocyst, fatty nodules in Gaucher’s
Spleen: Microabscess pattern:
Candida, MAI, TB, PCP, bacterial, fungal, Gaucher’s, sarcoid, KS, lymphoma, mets
Spleen: Scalloped contour:
infarcts, septic emboli, hematoma, metastatic implants, pseudocyst
Spleen: Splenic cyst:
primary – congenital, true; secondary – calcified, false, prior infarct, trauma, infection, echinococcus, pancreatic pseudocyst
Spleen: Splenic calcifications:
TB, histo, PCP, phleboliths, hemangioma
Spleen: Splenomegaly:
tumor – lymphoma, leukemia; infection – infectious mono, histo, sarcoid; metabolic – Gaucher’s, amyloid, hemochromatosis; trauma; vascular – portal HTN, hematologic disorders
Peritoneal Cavity: Peritoneal mets:
ovarian, stomach, colon, pancreas
Peritoneal Cavity: Pseudomyxoma peritonei:
mucinous cystadenoCA from ovary or appendix, mucocele
Peritoneal Cavity: Peritoneal fluid collections:
ascites, urinoma, biloma, seroma, lymphocele, pseudocyst, CSFoma; complex – abscess, hematoma, pseudomyxoma peritonei, pancreatic necrosis
Peritoneal Cavity: Intraperitoneal calcifications:
arterial calcs, appendicolith, mesenteric node, gallstone, pancreatic calcs, porcelain GB, renal/ureteral stone, nephrocalcinosis, old hematoma, abscess, fibroid, fetal skeletal part, phlebolith, teratoma, echinococcal cyst, mucinous tumor
General GI DDx:
Crohn’s, lymphoma, TB (infection), mets, CA, radiation, ischemia
Mucosal:
acute angle, absence of normal mucosal pattern, irregular fuzzy margin
Submucosal:
obtuse angle, presence of normal mucosal pattern, smooth distinct margin
Extrinsic:
spiculation, tethering
AIDS:
infection – CMV, Candida, herpes, Cryptosporidium, MAI; tumor – KS, lymphoma; esophagus – ulcers (Candida, CMV, herpes, HIV), sinus tracts (TB, Actinomycosis); proximal small bowel – ulcers (cryptosporidium), nodules (KS, lymphoma, MAI); distal small bowel – enteritis (TB, MAI, CMV); colon – colitis (CMV, pseudomembranous), typhlitis; rectum – herpes, lymphoma; biliary – strictures (CMV, Cryptosporidium); liver and spleen – KS, lymphoma, Candida, TB, MAI, PCP
Abdominal trauma:
liver laceration (#1), splenic lac, renal trauma, bowel hematoma, pancreatic fx, GB injury, adrenal hemorrhage
Abdominal complications after cardiac surgery:
GI hemorrhage, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, perforated peptic ulcer, mesenteric ischemia, perforated diverticulitis
Low density lymph nodes:
TB, MAI, lymphoma, testicular tumor, mucinous adenoCA, Whipple’s
Cystic abdominal mass:
abscess, loculated ascites, panc pseudocyst, ovarian cyst or tumor, lymphocele, cystic lymphangioma, enteric duplication cyst, cystic teratoma
Mesenteric mass:
lymphoma, mets, carcinoid, mesenteric fibromatosis, mesothelioma
Large LUQ mass:
stomach (leiomyosarcoma), pancreas (pseudocyst, nonfunctioning islet cell tumor, mucinous tumor), adrenal (carcinoma), spleen (lymphoma), kidney (RCC, lymphoma)
RLQ inflammation:
appendicitis, Crohn’s, cecal diverticulitis, perforated cecal CA, mesenteric adenitis, PID
Volvulus:
gastric (organoaxial, mesenteroaxial), midgut, colon (sigmoid, cecal)
Hernia:
paraesophageal, paraduodenal, inguinal, umbilical, Spigelian, lumbar, Richter’s, incisional
Abdominal wall:
mets (melanoma, NF, iatrogenic seeding), rectus sheath hematoma (trauma, anticoagulation)
Ascites:
cirrhosis, mets, CA, hypoalbuminemia, CHF, pancreatitis
Gasless abdomen:
obstruction with fluid-filled bowel, severe vomiting, high obstruction, achalasia, impaired swallowing, continuous NG suction