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134 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
example of an infectious disease
small pox, pollio
example of a degenerative disease
diabetes, cardiovascular disease, HIV,AIDS
what is a risk factor?
It indicates a high corrorlation to a disease it is NOT a direct cause
what are the three type of risk factors?
dietary risk factors
environment risk factors
disease risk factors
what does CVD stand for?
cardiovascular disease
what does CHD stand for?
coronary heart disease
explain the common misconception about women and cardiovascular disease?
people use to think that women are were not prone to CVD but they actually have a = or higher chance of getting it.
what is atherosclerosis?
accumulation of lipids on artery walls
what is arteriosclerosis?
arteries become very hard due, less blood circulation. It develops with hypertension
hypertension aka...
high blood presure
how does atherosclerosis develop?
1- plaque in coronary arteries
2- formation of blood clots by platelets
results of atherosclerosis
- diminished blood flow
- rise in blood pressure
Risk factors for CVD
gender,age,family history, abnormal blood lipids, hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, high blood cholesterol, diet, smoking
regular blood pressure
recomindations for reducing CVD risk
-cholesterol screening
-coltrol weight
- reduce fat, saturated fat
what are some dietary inventions for reducing CVD risk?
-soluble fiber
- omega 3 fatty acids
- alcohol in moderation (1 for women 2 for men)
-Vitamin E
-Soy proteins
how does hypertension develop?
- insulin resistance
risk factors for hypertension
- high blood lipids
- diabetes
what does DASH stand for?
dietary aproaches to stop hypertension
recomondations for reducing hypertension
-weigh control
-physical activity
-sodium/salt intake
-DASH eating plan
-drug therapy
what is metastases?
when a disease producing organisms spreads from one area to an other
how dose cancer develop?
-genetic factors
- immune factors
- emvironmental factors (carcinogens)
define carcinogens
contributes to cancer devolopments, A cancer-causing substance or agent.
what are the dietary contributers to the initiation process of cancer?
-heterocyclic amies (HIGH TEMPS, fried, BBQed meets)
-excess iron
-low intake of folate
-cholesterol oxidation
define heterocyclic amies
meets cooked in high temps, fried or BBQed
what are the dietary contributers to the promotion process of cancer?
-high fat
-excess calories
prevention food factors for cancer
-high folate foods
-cruciferous veggies
-garlic components
-onion components
-high folate
-high fiber
-low fat
-viamin e
-soy products
-calorie restriction
type one diabetes
-before 30
-refered to as juvanile onset
-thin to normal body weight
-usually no known family history
-no major risk factors
-blood sugar is sensitive to small changes in diet,exersize and insulin dose
type two diabetes
-adult onset
-developed later in life
-usually over 40
-high blood glucose levels
- hypo-glycemic
-usually overweight
-usually runs in familys
-treatment begins with diet and exersize later progressing to pills & later to insulin.
complications of diabetes
-disease of blood vessels
(cardiovascuclar disease, viasion)
- disease of nerves
(low sensation, vision)
what are the dietary recomdations for diabetes?
-optimal nutrition
-controlling blood glucose
-achieving a desirable blood lipid profile
-controlling blood pressure
- meal timing
-amount of carbs
immune system- 1st,2nd and 3rd line of defence
- phagocytes (natural killer cells)
nutrients known to affect immunity
-fatty acids
-vitimans A,E,B6,C
how many calories per gram of alcohol?
7 cal/gram
alcohol effects the ____ & the ______
liver and the brain

*it can also lead to malnutrition*
what percetage of infants deaths are there in america
define phenotype
the observable constitution of an organism.
define epigenitics
the study of how genes produce their effect on the phenotype of the organism
define zygote
single fertalized cell
what occurs on the 15ths day of fetal growth?
the embryo forms
what is the job of the placenta?
receives nutrients, oxygen, antibodies and hormones from the mother's blood and passes out waste. It forms a barrier, the placental barrier, which filters out some substances which could harm the fetus
LBW stands for what?
low birth weight
what is consitered to be LBW
5.5 lbs amd under
SGA stands for what
small for gestational age
what is consitered to be SGA?
7.5 lbs and under
should a pregnant women diet?
components of weight gain during pregancy
placenta, uterus, blood, breat and fetus maternal fat stores
what is the cooralation between breast feeding and weight loss/gain
breast feeding leads to quicker weight loss after delivery
how many more cal do preg women need then normally required?
how much additional protein should a preg women cosume?
10 grams
what vit. and minerals are essenntial during pregnancy?
iron,folate,B12,zinc,vit d, calcium
iron, folate, B12, zinc are needed for what during preg?
vit d, calcium needed for what during pregnancy?
what is morning sickness
nausia that may go away after the first trimester
what is a hemorroid
swelled blood vessels around the anus
what are nutrition related concerns during pregnancy
nausia, consitpation, hemmeroids, cravings, hartburn, general malnutrition
what is gestational diabetes
occurs only during pregnancy
what coculd occur if carbs are avoided during pregnancy?
brain dammage
how many extra cal. are needed while lactating?
600 cal
how much water is needed while lactating
12-13 cups
the first 6 months after preg what vit and min should be taken
iron, vit d, B6
what is colostrom?
a yellowish liquid produced instead of regular breast milk the first few days of breast feeding?
what are some practices that are incompatible with lactation?
alcohol, medicinal drugs, illicit drugs,smoking,emvironmental con taminations, caffine
that are some of the effects of alcohol during lactation?
suppresses lactation, enters breast milk and will alter the taste and effects of milk on the baby
what are some of the benifits of brest feeding?
colostrum, antibodies, lactoferrin,growth factors
what is lactoferrin?
glycoprotein present in milk that has a good supply of iron
when can infants be inrtoduced to cow's milk?
after the first year
what foods should be introduced at 4-6 months of age
SOLID food
calories required at 1 year
1000 cal
calories required at 3 years
calories required at 10 years
what is the most common vitamin defficiency for children throughout the world
vit a
what is the formula to calculate how much fiber a child should consume?
childs age +5 grams
two common types of hyper activity
what is the best way to discover if a child has any allergies
only introduce ONE new food a week to see if a reaction occurs
should fruits or veggies be introduced to a child first and why?
Veggies because fruit is sweeter
during adolescence there is a great increase in what
height and weight
what ages is adolescence?
is puberty occuring later or earlier then it has in the past?
what fraction of food is eaten away from home during adolescence
what fraction on cal do adolescence eat come from snacks and beverages?
adolescence is a period of what...?

many teens will experimennt with illicit drugs, alcohol and smoking
at what age are you consitered to be an adult?
21 and over is an adult
what are some physiological changes in an aging adult?
changes in: body composition,immune system,GI tract, tooth loss, sensory losses
around what age are taste buds lost
45-50 years
in an aging adult every 10 years nutritional/energy needs do what?
decrease 5%
what are two vitimans that become deficient in adults and why
vit d- dont get exposed to sunlight

iron- loss of blood during surgery,internal bleeding
what is macular degeneration
loss of vision on side, blurred vision
what dose USDA stand for?
US dept of aguculture
what types of food does the USDA deal with?
fresh produce, anything not processed for packaged
what dose FDA stand for?
foor and drug admin
what does the USDA deal with?
they handle the saftey of foods, labeling, standards for food composition (processed foods) inforce pestaside regulations
what dose EPA stand for?
environmental protection agency
what the the EPA monitor?
regulates pesticide usage and H20 quality
what dose CDC stand for?
centers for disease control
what is the CDC's job?
they deal with all food bourne illnesses.
what is an example of a food bourne illness
what dose WHO stand for?
world health org
what is the WHO and what do they do?
headcourters located in geniva switzerland, UN run organization, deals with imunization.
defind food bourne illness
any illness caused by contaminnation of food or water. Caused by an infective agent (bacteria, protein that causes immune response)
what is the most common way to get bochalism poisening?
from a dented can
define food bourne illnesses
sickness caused by the ingestion of food containing toxic substances produced by micro organisims
what causes food bourne illness?
food additives,bacteria, chemical residues from pollutants, pesticides, antibiotics and hormones
are viruses life threatning?
what are three things you must do/be aware of when traveling overseas?
must get immunization shots, becareful eating fresh foods and be carful when drinking non bottled water
what are some natural ways to prevent food from spoiling?
salting and sugaring,drying,cold ad hot smoking,cooling (refridgerators, freezers etc)
how dose salting and sugaring prevent food from spoiling?
natural preservative because it removes the water from the food which bacteria thrives in.
what are some synthetic techniques to prevent food from spoiling?
cannning, pasteurization and adding preservatives (which increases shelf life)
what are some ways food spoilage is prevented
propionic acid, sulfites,nitrates and nitrites, aseptic packaging, irradiation and genetic modification.
what is the process for aseptic packaging
sterillise container, sterilise juice,comine, sterilise again
when must you first refridgerate the contents of something that is in septic packaging
you dont have to refridgerate it until its opened
how many people suffer from food bourne reelated illnesses
76 million
in recent years what are two foods that have led to food boure related illnesses
spinach and beef (mad cow)
which lasts longer: organic or regular foods?
what are too things you would find in processed foods
additives and preservatives
advertisements and packageing make up what percentage of teh price of foods?
what is an example of a nonintentional additive?
piece of metal, soap, glass
what are the two types of chemical residues?
pollutents, pestisides
organic foods refer to the method of production used. organic foods are grown with out the use of what?
pestisides or chemicals
organic foods have no...
additives of preservatives
is the price of organic foods going up or down?
what dose G.R.A.S stand for?
generally reguarded as safe substances
what is GRAS list made up of?
list of 400+ additives that are consitered to be safe. it is an ever changing list.
what is the Delaney clause and what dose it say?
prevents the intentional addition to foods of a compound that has been shown to cause cancer in lab animals or humans.
why are food additives used?
prevent food spoilage, maintain food safety and prevent food bourne illness, to produce mass quanities of food and safelt distribute them.
define food/meal insecurity
inability to secure nutritionally adiquite foods in a socially appropriate way. Not knowing where your next meal is comming from
is obesity a malnutrition issue
undernutrition is what?
when one dosent have enough nutriants to meet energy levels. not enough food. wrong comination of food.
who is most effected by undernutrition?
elderly, infants,pregnant, low income and the working poor,
what are the effects of undernutrition in children
delayed development
why is obseaty common in low income homes?
because many familys turn to fast food when they are low on cash because its cheap
what is the scientific definition of hunger?
physical state where you dont eat enough food to meet the proper energy levels to be a productive member of society.
what are some of the causes of semistarvation?
food/population ratio
natural disasters
depletion of natural resources
what are some of the way the US is trying to reduce undernutrition?
food stamps, national school lunch program, home delivered meals, food distributuion programs on the indian reservations