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30 Cards in this Set

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Refers to the ability of a test to identify correctly those that do not have a disease.
Refers to the ability of a test to correctly identify those who do have a disease.
Patient factors that could affect or interfere with test results.
Incorrect diet prep, current drug therapy, time of day, pregnancy, age & sex, type of illness, plasma volume, incorrect specimen collection, handling, or labeling, wrong preservative, delayed delivery to lab, incorrect/incomplete pt prep,hemolyzed blood samples, old specimens.
White blood cells 2 main groups.
Recieve their name from the distinctive granules that are present in the cytoplasm of neutrophils, basophils & eosinophils.
These cells are also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes (polys or PMN) because they contain multilobed nucleus.
Mononuclear leukocytes consist of lymplocytes and monocytes, that do not contain granules in their cytoplasm & have nonlobular nuclei.
Process in which leukocytes encapsulate foreign organisms & destroy them.
How leukocytes fight infection and defend the body.
A white count above 10,000/UL
A decrease in WBCs<4000.
Causes of leukopenia:
Viral infections, overwhelming bacterial infections & bone marrow depression.
Differentioal white blood cell count.
Total leukocyte count of the circulation WBCs is differentiated according to five types of leukocyte cells.
5 types of leukocyte cells differentiated:
Neutrophils-pyogenic infections
Eosinphils-allergic disorders & parasitic ingestations
Basophils-parasitic infections
Lymphocytes-viral infections
Monocytes-severe infections (p infection has been going on for awhile)
Increased neutrophils (neutrophillia) are caused by:
Physiologic conditions such as stress, excitement & exercise (temporary).
L&D, Steroids, Exposure to extreme cold or heat (increases the immune system)
Basophilia (increase in basophils) is caused by:
Inflammation, allergy or sinusitis.
Leukemia, Hodgkin's dz, polycythemia vera, chronic hemolytic anemia, DM, TB, Varicella & influenza.
Lymphocytosis (increase in lymphocytes) is caused by:
Lymphatic leukemia, infectious lymphocytosis, mononucleosis, some viral dz, TB, Pertussis, Crohn's dz, ulcerative colitis, hypoadrenalism, hypothroidism.
Decreased RBC count is usually caused by:
Anemia-Associated w/cell production & destruction, blood loss, dietary insufficiency of iron & certain vitamins.
Decreased RBC count is also caused by:
Hodkin's dz, multiple myeloma, leukemia, lupus, Addison's dz, rheumatic fever, subacute fever, subacute endocarditis.
Increased RBC is caused by:
Renal dz, high altitude, pulmonary dz, cardiovascular dz, tabacco/carboxyhemoglobin.
Also by polycythemia vera, increased bone marrow production, extraarenal tumors, dehydration.
Decreased levels of hemoglobin are caused by:
Anemia (also look at erythrocyte ct. & hematocrit), hyperthroidism, cirrhosis of the liver, severe hemorrage, hemolytic reactions.
Increased levels of hemoglobin are caused by:
Polycythemia, severe burns, COPD, CHF, polycythermia vera.
Red blood indices?
Define the size and hemoglobin content of the RBC.
Red blood indices consist of:
Mean corpuscular volume (MCV)
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCG)
Mean corpuscular Hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)
Mean corpuscular volume (MCV)
Expresses the volume occupied by a single red blood cell.
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)
Measures the average concentration of hemoglobin in the RBC.
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)
Measures the average wt. of hemoglobin per RBC
Rticulocyte count?
Young immature RBC contains reticular material (RNA) that stains gray-blue when tested. It remains in newly released RBC for 1-2 days before the cell reaches full maturity.
Sed Rate
(Think inflammatory process)
Not diagnostic of any particular dz, but is a indication that a dz process is ongoing & should be investigated.
If you had a D/Dx of arthritis you should order a ?
Sed rate
Producing pus.
pyogenic infection
An infection resulting from pus-forming organisms.