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36 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What does Amylase do?
Changes starch to sugar. Produced in the salivary glands, pancreas, liver and fallopian tubes.
What increases amylase amounts?
Inflammation of the pancreas or salivary glands.

Norm: 25-125u/L
What does serum Amylase test for?
Pancreatitis, levels increase early in dz process, 3-6 hours after onset of pain.
ETOH: main cause of chronic pancreatitis.
What does Lipase do?
Changes fats to fatty acids and glycerol. Pancreas major source of this enzyme.

Norm: 10-140u/L
What happens to Lipase in pancreatitis?
Appears in blood after damage to pancreas. Usually present after amylase levels return to normal.
When does Lipase start to rise in pancreatitis?
24-36 hours after onset of illness, remains elevated for up to 14 days.
What causes Lipase to rise besides pancreatitis?
Cholecystitis, severe renal dz, impacted bowel, and peritonitis.
Lipase level >600 IU/L require immediate attention.
Ammonia (NH3) what is it?
Waste product from nitrogen breakdown during protein metabolism. Metabolized by the liver and excreted by the kidneys as Urea.
What causes ammonia to elevate?
Cirrhosis, acute hepatitis, GI hemorrhage.
What are serum ammonia levels for?
Evaluation of the progress of severe liver dz and the response to treatment.
What is Asparate Transaminase (AST) or Serum Glutamic-Pyruvic Transaminase (SGOT)?
AST levels are elevated in hepatitis (viral preicteric phase) and liver dz.
How high can AST rise in liver dz?
10-100 times normal.
How do statins affect the AST?
Can cause increase, if AST rises to 3X norm, DC the meds.
AST clinical implications
Acute and chronic hepatitis
Active cirrhosis
Hapatic necrosis
Alcoholic hepatitis
Acute pancreatitis
What is Alanine Transmainase (ALT) or Serum Glutamic_Pyruvic Transmaminase (SGPT)?
Used to diagnose and monitor liver dz, and used to differentiate types of jaundice.
What causes ALT levels to rise?
GI/Hepatic disorders:
Hepatocellular dz
Active cirrhosis
Obstructive jaundice
pancreatitis & hepatitis
What is the Albumin?
One of the two main protein factors of the blood. Maintains the osmotic press., transports bilirubin, fatty acids, hormones, & water insoluble products
What causes a decrease in albumin levels?
Liver Dz
What is Globulin?
Protein in the immune system, helps w/ osmotic press. If albumin levels start to decline, globulin levels increase to compensate.
When do Globulin levels increase?
Liver dz
ETOH abuse
What is the Total Protein?
Adding albumin levels and globulin levels together.
What must you do when looking at a Total Protein measurement?
Remember to look at each component to see if one is lower and the other is compensating to make it seem normal
What is Bilirubin?
Destruction of RBC's releases bilirubin into blood stream. It is removed by the liver and excreted as bile.
Where is bilirubin found?
1) protein bound indirect or unconjugated bilirubin.
2) circulating direct or conjugated bilirubin.
What causes jaundice?
Hepatic, obstructive or hemolytic reasons.
Hepatocellular damage does what?
Increased bilirubin and jaundice from hapatitis and cirrhosis
Causes of obstructive jaundice?
Blockage of the bile or hepatic ducts from gallstones or neoplasms.
Causes of hemolytic jaundice?
Various hemolytic disorders.
Hepatitis A Antibody test (HAV-ab, anti_HAV), IgM and IgG test for what?
Diagnose previous exposure, noninfectivity, and immunity to hepatitis A infection. IgM anti-HAV detected w/in first two weeks of dz, remains present for 6 months
What is the relationship of IgG and IgM?
IgG antibodies replace IgM antibodies and remain for life.
Hepatitis B Surface antigen (HbsAg) does what?
Evidence of active HBV infection & infectivity, appears 4-6 weeks post infection. Test may be positive before clinical symptoms appear.
What is Hepatitis B Core antibody (Anti-HBc)?
This IgM antibody appears shortly after the HbsAG is detectable. Most reliable test for Hepatitis B infection. IgM anti-HBc may remain for life.
What is Hepatitis B e Anti-gen
Usually present for only 3-6 weeks, one of the first indicators of increased viral replication and infectivity.
Hepatitis C testing does what?
Diagnosed when hepatitis C anti-body present in blood. Positive results for hepatitis C, hepatitis C RNA and genotype confirm chronic infection.
Prothrombin Time is what?
Vitamin K dependent glycoprotein produced by the liver and needed for firm fibrin clot formation. PT will be increased in liver dz.
Partial prothrombin time is what?
Used for quantitative and qualitative platelet abnormalities. Increased in liver dz.