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38 Cards in this Set

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What is the Albumin/Globulin ratio?
A measurement of the amount of the 2 major proteins in the blood.
Albumin level - Total protein=Globulin
A/G=ratio
What are some causes of a decreased albumin level?
Ascites, Alcoholism, Beriberi, Brucellosis, Burns, Cholecystitis, Cirrhosis, CHF, DM, Chrohn's dz, Liver dz, Edema, SLE, HTN, Glomerulonephritis, Hemorrhage, Hepatitis, Hodgkin's Dz, Hyperthyroidism, Infections
What are some causes of increased albumin levels?
Dehydration, Diarrhea, Meningitis, Metastatic carcinomatosis, Multiple myeloma, Neoplasms, Nephrotic syndrome, Osteomyelitis, Peptic ulcer, Pneumonia, Pregnancy, Rheumatic fever, Sprue, Stress, Trauma, TB, Uremia, Vomiting, SLE, Drugs
What is Globulin?
A protein that functions in the immune system & helps w/osmotic pressure.
What causes Globulin levels to increase?
A decrease in albumin levels.
Liver disease
Alcholism
What is Alkaline Phosphatase?
A enzyme that originates in the bone, liver & placenta (some activity in the kidney & intestines)
It functions best at ph of 9 & normal values are age & sex dependent.
Why are Alkaline Phosphatase levels tested?
Is used as a tumor marker.
To monitor liver & bone dz.
What causes Alkaline Phosphatase levels to rise?
Bone dz-levels rise w/osteoblastic activity.

Liver dz-levels rise due to impaired excretion as a result of obstruction in the biliary tree.
What is asparatate transaminase?
AST
The enzyme is released into the circulation following the injury or death of cells.
What causes asparatate transaminase levels to rise?
Any dz that causes changes in metabolic tissues.
What do calcium levels evaluate?
Levels of calcium & ionized calcium, to evaluate parathyoid function, calcium tetabolism & malignant activity.
What is the most common cause of increases in calcium levels?
Hyperparathyroidism & cancer
What is the most common cause of decreases in calcium levels?
Hypoalbuminemia
What are the S/Sx of low calcium levels?
<6mg/dl
tetany (tonic muscular spasms) & convultions
What are the S/Sx of high levels of calcium?
>13mg/dl
cardiotoxicity, arrhythmias & coma.
What are some reasons for increased calcium levels?
Hyperparathyroidism, CA, Granulomatous dz, Hyperthyroidism, Paget's dz, Prolonged immoilizations, fx.
What are the normal ranges for Albumin?
Adults; 3.5-4.8 g/dL

Children; 2.9-5.5 g/dL
(panic range; <1.5 g/dL)
Levels at 2.0-2.5g/dL may be the cause of edema.
What are the normal ranges for Alkaline Phosphatase?
Females 1-12 yrs <350 U/L
>15 yrs 25-100 U/L
Males 1-12 yrs <350 U/L
12-14 yrs <500 U/L
>20 yrs 25-100 U/L
What are the normal ranges for Calcium?
Adults 8.8-10.4 mg/dL
What are the normal ranges for Ionized Calcium?
Adults 4.65-5.28 mg/dL
Newborn 4.4-5.48 mg/dL
1-18yr 4.8-5.52
What are the normal ranges for Cholesterol?
<200
What are the normal ranges for Triglycerides?
<200
What are the normal levels for Potassium?
3.5-5.2 mEq/L
What are some causes for decreased potassium?
Diarrhea, vomiting, sweating, starvation, malabsorption, Bartler's syndrome, draining wounds, cystic fibrosis, severe burns, primary aldosteronism, alcoholism, Osmotic hyperglycemia, respiratory alkalosis, renal tubular acidosis, diuretic, anibiotic & mineralocorticoid administration, barium chloride poisnoing, tx of megaloblastic anemia w/vitamin B12 or folic acid.
What is the most frequent cause of potassium deficiency?
GI loss
What is the most frequent cause of potassium depletion?
IV fluid administration without adequate potassium supplements.
What are the causes of increased potassium levels?
Renal failure, dehydration, obstruction & trauma. Cell damage; burns, accidents, surgery, chemotherapy, disseminated intravascular coagulation, Metabolic acidosis, diabetic ketoacidosis, Addison's dz, Pseudohypoaldosteronism, Uncontrolled DM, SLE, Sickle cell, interstitial nephritis & tubular disorders. Kidney transplant rejection.
Regarding potassium levels what happens with Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation?
Damaged cells release potassium into the blood.
Regarding potassium levels what happens with Metabolic acidosis?
Potassium is driven out of the cells.
Decreased potassium levels can be an indication of;
Primary Aldosteronism
A secondary cause of HTN
What does a potassium level <2.5 mEq/L cause?
Ventricular fibrillation.
What does a potassium level >7mEq/L cause?
Myocardial irritability.
The Potassium value should be checked in severe cases of;
Addison's dz, Steroid therapy, Uremic coma, Cardiac pt. on dig., Interstional obstruction, Acute renal failure, GI loss with the administration of diuretics.
What are the normal levels of sodium?
136-145 mEq/L
What are the random glucose panic values?
<40 mg/dl = possible brain damage.
>470 mg/ld = possible coma
What is a normal fasting glucose level?
<126
What is a normal random glucose level?
<200
What test would you run to diagnose gout?
Uric Acid