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72 Cards in this Set

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inflammation caused by repetition of movement or excessive pressure. Elbows and knees are the most commonly affected because they are rested upon more than many parts of the body with bursae and they also get the most repetitive use...
Bursitis
an injury which occurs to ligaments caused by a sudden overstretching. The ligament is usually only stretched, but sometimes it can be snapped, slightly torn, or ruptured...
sprain
a tearing of a muscle-tendon unit...acute or chronic...caused by repetitive micro-trauma...
strain
MC areas that sprains occur?
shoulder, elbow, knee, ankle
best diagnostic tool to determine the extent of a sprain
MRI
localized joint pain and tenderness, but no joint laxity
1st Degree sprain
detectable joint laxity with localized joint pain and tenderness
2nd Degree sprain
ligaments completely disrupted and joint grossly unstable
3rd Degree sprain
a break or a loss of structural continuity in a bone
fracture
this injury alters the normal relationship between joint surfaces. the normally apposing joint surfaces are completely displaced
Dislocation
This injury alters the normal relationship between joint surfaces. The normally apposing joint surfaces are PARTIALLY displaced
subluxation
what type of fractures are Smith's and Colles' ?
angulation fx. (volar / dorsal respectively.)
bone fracture which occurs when a fragment of bone tears away from the main mass of bone as a result of physical trauma. This can occur at the ligament due to the application forces external to the body (such as a fall or pull) or at the tendon due to a muscular contraction that is stronger than the forces holding the bone together
avulsion fx
MC in children b/c their ligament is stronger than bone. "pseudo-jones"
This injury alters the normal relationship between joint surfaces. The normally apposing joint surfaces are PARTIALLY displaced
subluxation
a type of fracture that is open when there is a break in the surrounding skin or mucosa that allows the fracture to communicate with the external environment.
open fracture
what type of fractures are Smith's and Colles' ?
angulation fx. (volar / dorsal respectively.)
true or false? open fractures are surgical emergencies
true
bone fracture which occurs when a fragment of bone tears away from the main mass of bone as a result of physical trauma. This can occur at the ligament due to the application forces external to the body (such as a fall or pull) or at the tendon due to a muscular contraction that is stronger than the forces holding the bone together
avulsion fx
a type of fracture that is open when there is a break in the surrounding skin or mucosa that allows the fracture to communicate with the external environment.
open fracture
true or false? open fractures are surgical emergencies
true
tx for open fractures?
debride the wound, irrigate and give parenteral ABX in the OR within 6 hours of the injury.
tx for open fractures?
debride the wound, irrigate and give parenteral ABX in the OR within 6 hours of the injury.
open fractures have wounds <1 cm in length. (increased risk for osteomyelitis)
Grade 1 open FX.
wounds are > 1 cm, but clean s devitalization of tissue
Grade 2 open FX.
wounds are > 1 cm in length or grossly contaminated, or associated with comminuted fracture and vascular injury. (immunocompromised)
Grade 3 open FX.
give an example of a fracture pattern that is low-energy injury, usually the result of a direct blow to a long bone or a ligament avulsion...
a transverse fx:
-night stick fx
-stress fx
-pathologic fx
which type of bone fractures heal the quickest?
metaphyseal fx or cancellous bone
what are the determining factors to describe a fracture?
open or closed, location, fracture pattern, extent of displacement
type of fracture pattern that results from a rotary or twisting injury and usually requires ORIF. They have a tendency to displace after reduction and immobil.
spiral or oblique FX.
a type of fracture with two or more fragments?
comminuted:
-butterfly fragments
-segmental fractures
These (impacted) are low-energy injuries in which two bone fragments are jammed together. "it explodes into itself"
impacted fx:
-mc seen in metaphyseal bones ex)femoral neck, distal radius, tibial plateau fx's.
these growth plate injuries are found in children and have the potential to cause growth disturbance and are classified by what?
Salter-Harris Growth plate fx
a growth plate fx that goes through the physis
type I- Salter Harris
a growth plate fx that goes through the physis and metaphysis.
type II- salter harris
a growth plate fx that goes through the physis and epiphysis
type III- salter harris
a growth plate fx that goes through the physis, metaphysis and epiphysis
type IV- salter harris
a crush injury to the physis
type V- salter harris
Patients with fractures should be treated as trauma patients. true/false
true. ABC's + D--> disability
what are the 3 principles of fracture care involved after the p is stable?
1)reduction of deformity
2)maintenance of reduction
3)rehabilitation of function
what are the stages of fracture healing (callous)?
1)hematoma formation
2)inflammatory phase
3)reparative phase
4)remodeling
how are compartment syndrome or pressure sores caused?
if swelling within a cast increases pressure, this could result.
most common glenohumeral dislocation?
anterior dislocation much more common than posterior
a lesion with a recurrent dislocation of the anterior capsular injury associated with a tear of the glenoid labrum off the anterior glenoid rim
Bankhart Lesion
a deformity due to recurrent dislocation of the anterior glenohumeral, that causes a compression fracture of the articular surface of the humeral head posterolaterally that is created by the sharp edge of the anterior gldnoid as the humeral head dislocates over it.
Hill-Sachs Deformity
what is the most common bone fractured?
the clavicle
what is the weakest point of the clavicle?
middle/distal third
what are the determining factors to describe a fracture?
open or closed, location, fracture pattern, extent of displacement
type of fracture pattern that results from a rotary or twisting injury and usually requires ORIF. They have a tendency to displace after reduction and immobil.
spiral or oblique FX.
a type of fracture with two or more fragments?
comminuted:
-butterfly fragments
-segmental fractures
These (impacted) are low-energy injuries in which two bone fragments are jammed together. "it explodes into itself"
impacted fx:
-mc seen in metaphyseal bones ex)femoral neck, distal radius, tibial plateau fx's.
these growth plate injuries are found in children and have the potential to cause growth disturbance and are classified by what?
Salter-Harris Growth plate fx
CT is most useful for what structures?
fine bone structure, especially the skull, spine and pelvis
MRI is most useful for the evaluation of what ?
soft tissues: muscles, ligaments, cartilage, spinal cord and marrow spaces.
Nuclear medicine scans are usually used to evaluate?
the skeleton for bone metastases, to differentiate cellulitis from osteomyelitis and occult trauma
initial imaging study of choice for fracture
plain rad
initial imaging study of choice for occult hip fx
MRI or bone scan
initial imaging study of choice for knee fx
MRI
initial imaging study of choice for stress fx
nuclear med. bone scan
initial imaging study of choice for metastases
nuclear med bone scan
Gout most commonly affects which mc joint?
first metatarsal phalangeal
a calcification of soft tissue that can occur from trauma (bleeding within the tissue)
myositis ossificans
in hip dislocations the vast majority of the dislocations are posterior. true/false
true.
name the compression neruopathy syndrome that presents with loss of sensation in the tips of the first three digits and forearm, with wrist pain
carpal tunnel syndrome
what is the classification system used for proximal humerous fractures?
Neer classification;
-non-displaced fx
-displaced fx
most common MOI for proximal humerus fx
FOOSH
Tx for nondisplaced fx of proximal humerus
sling, begin ROM exercises
Tx for 2part/3part fx of proximal humerous
closed reduction, sling, possible ORIF
tx for midshaft humerus fx
coaptation splint: carefully molded plaster splint around arm, elbow, deltoid & acromion x 2 weeks. change to sarmiento brace.
P presents with blow to the proximal ulna and says that his arm was forcefully pronated. after AP/Lat/Obliq rad series you see a fx of the mid ulna w anterior dislocation of the radial head. what type of fx is this?
Monteggia Fx
an injury pattern involving a radial shaft fx c associated dislocation of the distal radioulnar joint which disrupts the forearm axis joint
Galeazzi fracture/dislocation
what does "fracture of necessity" refer to?
the adult Galeazzi fx not being amendable to tx by closed means. Sx stabalization is necessary
P presents after having fallen forward with his elbow extended and his forarm pronated. You order an AP/lat/obliq and immediately see a fat pad which you remember being called a "sail sign". a few minutes later you notice a subtle fracture ...what do you suspect?
radial head fracture.