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91 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What factors are associated with a favorbale prognosis in Schizophrenia?
Availability of social support, good premorbid adjustment, acute onset, being female, presence of a mood diturbance
What are the most effective treatments for Specific Phobias?
Flooding and systematic desensitization
Anaclitic depression ocurs in:
Infants who have been deprived of maternal attention between 6-8 months. Tend to weep, withdraw, have insomnia
Autism is seen in about:
A - 5 cases out of 100
B - 2-5 cases out of 1000
C - 3 cases out of 500
D - 2-5 cases out of 10,000
D - Also, much more common in males
The onset of delirium is characterized by:
a relatively rapid onset with a duration of a month or less
Research on smokers trying to quit finds that:
Most smokers end up quitting on their own
In terms of neurological factors, ADHD has been linked to abnormalities in the:
Prefrontal cortex (decreased blood flow)
Describe the gender onset differences for OCD.
Males - OCD peaks at ages 6-15. Females, peak is between 20-29. Adult incidence is same.
Patient with vivid, frightening dreams, restless sleep, chronic fatigue, and hx of alcohol abuse. Diagnosis is:
Alcohol-induced sleep disorder
Define cataplexy:
Eppisodes of sudden loss of muscle tone resulting in collapse, often associated with expressing of strong emotions
Name the single best prognostic indicator of recidivism among juvenile offenders?
Number of previous arrests
The most effective treatment for functional enuresis is:
Moisture alarms (more effective than imipramine in the long-term)
Among adults who were diagnosed with ADHD during childhood, we can expect that:
between 30%-70% will manifest signs of the disorder throughout their lives (and their children may have up to a 57% chance of having ADHD)
Caution is neccesarry when considering Ritalin for a hyperactive child with:
family history of Tourette's Syndrome
The cognitive deficits of depression differ from thos of dementia in that:
Free recall is typically impaired while recognition memory is relatively intact
As compared to whites, blacks are more likely to be diagnosed with:
The optimal treatment for PTSD is:
Prolonged exposure
Research on bioenic theories of autism:
has confirmed these factors play a dominant role, but has not identified any single factor as the most important one
Research suggests the best single treatment for Agoraphbia:
Flooding (exposure to anxiety-provoking stimuli while preventing an avoidance response) has rates up to 75%
Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome involves the processes termed:
alarm, resistance, exhaustion
Illusions are
misperceptions of real stimuli (thinking your wife is a hat)
Which age onset of Conduct Disorder is associated with a poorer prognosis?
Childhood as opposed to adolescent
Headache that begins in the frontal or occipital area and then proceeds to involve a bilateral dull ache is
tension headache
Headache casuing intense pain behind the eye
Cluster headache
Master & Johnson used sex therapy to treat:
Premature ejeculation used sex ed, improved communication & sensate focus)
For children with Enuresis, the most likely co-diagnosis is:
Encopresis, Sleepwalking disorder, & Sleep Terror Disorder
Which sleep disorders normally occur during Stages 3 & 4?
Sleep Terror and Sleepwalking
Research on ECT & memory loss suggests:
most deficits are reversible, though problems with autobiographical memory may persist for months
If a normal child takes Ritalin:
would exhibit increased attention span
Optimal treatment for Specific Phobia
in-vivo exposure with rsponse prevention
Acc. to Millon, people with NPD use which defense mechanisms?
Repression, rationalization, projection
DUring the acute phase, hypoglycemia is most likely to be misdaignoed as:
Panic Disorder
Research on eplilepsy hs found tonic-clonic seizures associated with:
greater cognitve impairment than other types of seizures
Relationship between environmental factors and Bipolar Disorder?
Environmental factors are likely to have a greater impact during the EARLY stages of the disorder
Onset of stuttering:
Usually age 5, and very rarely after age10
Mental health interventions for Alzheimer's disease focus on:
supportive & educational intervenions for family members
Addictive behaviors are difficult to treat because
they are self-reinforcing
According to Brady, the best treatment for reducing a phobic anxiety reaction is one that entails:
actual in-vivo exposur to the anxiety-provoking experience
Best predictor of adaptation in old age:
good health
First step in dealing with school-phobic child:
bring child back to school environment
Alzheimer's is associated with _______ memory loss:
Percentage of those with Alcohol Dependence who experience severe complications from Alcohol Withdrawal:
Rate of ADHD symptoms among twins with ADHD is:
Most common diagnosis for inpatients aged 18-44:
Smoking relapse is most often triggered by:
1)presence of smoking cues
2)Negative affect
Treatments for OCD exert their effect in which area of the brain?
Caudate nucleus
Locus Coeruleus is associated with which disorders?
Depression & Panic Disorder
One of highest correlations with smoking cessation is related to:
level of dependence (the more= the harder)
Symptoms that accompany the three stages of Alzheimer's Dementia:
Stage 1: depression, anomia, irritability, & anger
Stage 2: Paranoia & mood lability
Stage 3: apathy & emotional blunting
Risk for twin whose twin has Schizophrenia:
Identical = 46%
Fraternal = 17%
Type I & II of Schizophrenia acc. to Crow:
Type I: delusions, hallucinations, inappropriate affect & disorganized thinking (due to neurotransmitter irregularities)
TypeII: Emotional blunting, earlier onset, poorer prognosis, doesn't respond to meds (due to brain structure abnormalities)
Most effective interventions for cigarette smoking cessation:
Nicotine replacement therapy, skills training, & social support
Difference between Transsexuals & Transvestites is:
Transsexuals wish to change their gender, while Transsvestites do not
Concordance rate of Schizophrenia for siblings:
pathological, parrot-like repeating of words (may occur in PDD's, and schizo)
First signs of AIDS-related dementia:
Loss of concentration, & mild memory loss for recent events (occurs in 2/3 of AIDS patients)
Prevalence rate of autism is ____ times more for boys:
4 to 5
Concordance rate for identical twins with Bipolar I disorder:
One who is uncomfortable with their homosexual orientation, is diagnosed with::
Sexual disorder, NOS
Key difference between Asperger's & Autism is:
Asperger's does not include significant delays in language
A way to distinguish between facitious disorder & malingering is:
Malingering - there is secondary gain, such as financial compensation
Best treatment for facitios disorder:
Premature ejactulation has been linked to low levels of _________.
In early Alzheimer's & Korsakoff's, memory deficits include:
anterograde amnesia that affects declarative memories
Types of dyslexia & alexia:
Surface Dyslexia = reading w/o comprehension
Deep Dyslexia = reading errors including semantic paralexia (subsituting word with similar meanings)
Pure Alexia = word blindness, inability to read any words
Literal Alexia = can read whole words but not individual letters
Dementia resulting from long-term alcoholism, affects which abilities?
visuospatial more than verbal abilities
Erotomanic type delusions involve:
a false belief that another person, usually of higher status, is in love with him
Cessation of long-term alcohol consumption may result in delirium tremens, which is characterized by:
Paranoid delusions, hallucinations, & autonomic hyperactivity
Of the "big 5" persoanlity dimensions, which is a sociopath most likely to have?
Alcohol Abuse & Dependence has what Male:Female ratio?
Ratio of MDD has what Male:Female ratio?
Generalized tonic-clonic seizures are associated with?
Grand mal seizures
Common associated diagnoses with Tourette's:
Bipolar disorder includes, at a minimum:
a manic or mixed episode
Rett's Disorder
Involves sudden head growth deceleration, loss of purposeful hand movements, social engagement & language development. Only FEMALES,
Etiologies of Mental Retardation
30% = embryonic alterations (Such as Downs)
15% = environmental (malnutrition)
10% = pregnancy issues (fetal malnutrition)
5% = genetic
30-40% = ???
Most common co-diagnosis for Learning Disorders?
ADHD (20-50%)
Diagnosis of ADHD
Onset before age 7
Duration of 6 months
Symptoms in 2 settings
Co-diagnosis with ADHD:
50% = Conduct Disorder
25% emotional disorder
20% = Learning Disorder
Barkley's theory for ADHD of "behavioral disinhibition":
ADHD is not attention deficits, but rather a lack of ability to adjust activity levels to the situation at hand
Negative side effects of methylphenidates:
Somatic symptoms (insomnia, decreased appetite)
Movement abnormalities (motor & vocal tics)
OC symptoms
Growth Suppression
Involuntary or intentional passage of feces. Must be once a month for 3 months, after age 4
Medical conditions related to delirium:
Infections, metabolic disorders, renal diseases, postoperative states, head trauma, brain lesions
Risk Factors for Delirium:
1) Age over 60
2) Decreased "cerebral reserve" - after stroke, dementia
3) Post-bypass
4) Drug withdrawal (especially benzos)
Delusional Disorder:
Persistent delusions for 1 month that are NOT bizarre
Bipolar II Disorder
One or more dpressive episode & one hypomanic episode but no Manic episode
Rehm's self-control theory of depression
Views depression as deficits in self-control behaviors (selective attention to negative events, immediate outocmes; negative attributions for one's own behavior; insufficient self-reinforcement; excessive self-punishment
Rehm's self-control therapy for depression
Structured form of group therapy involving education, exercises, & homework to help patients monitor mood, modifiy evaluations and self-reinforce
Best treatment for Social Phobia
Medication (beta-blockers & MAOI's)
Somatization Disorder
4 - Pain
2 - GI
1 - Sexual
1 - Pseudoneurological
Predictors of Personality Disorders:
Hx of developmental problems, poor ego functioning, low IQ, disorganized families