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123 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What intervention should be provided for the family of an Alzheimer's patient?
support group
What would a GAF of 40-50 indicate?
serious impairment or suicidal ideation
What is the difference between Alzheimer's and Korsakoff's syndrome?
- Korsakoff's memory loss only
- Alzheimer's memory loss + cognitive impairments
When is ECT used to treat depression?
when other interventions unsuccessful
Which 3 disorders is Tourette's symdrome associated with?
What are panic attacks associated with?
unusual perceptual experiences
What is long term ADHD associated with?
conduct problems
What is acute hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) often misdiagnosed as?
panic attack
What is the risk of monozygotic twins having schizophrenia? What about dizygotic twins?
- 50%
- 20%
What is the difference between Sleepwalking disorder and Sleep terror disorder?
organized motor activity in sleepwalking disorder
What is the best prognostic indicator for Autism?
early language ability
What is the typical pattern of depression/physical symptoms of women during menstruation?
there is none
What is a common co-diagnosis w/ enuresis?
sleepwalking or sleep terror disorder
What 3 factors are associated w/ poor prognosis for schizophrenia?
- being male
- early onset
- negative symptoms
How should you intervene w/ paranoia?
What should you NOT do?
- attempt to change environment so it's less threatening
- confront the paranoia
How many sessions are needed to decrease a specific phobic response?
2-4 sessions
What is the most common disorder among >65?
alzheimer's type dementia
How does major depression often look in children?
irritability and acting out
What is the difference between Bipolar I and Bipolar II?
bipolar II does NOT have any manic episodes
Which type of schizophrenia is responsive to meds and has a better chance of recovery?
Does that type of schizophrenia have positive or negative symptoms?
- Schizophrenia Type I
- positive
What is the difference between the Tic disorders?
What are the 3 types and name them in order?
- duration of tics
- tic disorder NOS, transient, chronic/tourette's
What neurotransmitter is low in parkinson's?
This neurotransmitter being low causes what disorder to often occur w/parkinson's?
- dopamine
- depression
With what 2 interventions is cigarette smoking best treated?
- replacement training and social support
What 3 groups is HIV prognosis lowest for?
- low IQ, elderly, more depressed
What is the heretability of ADHD hyperactive-impulsive?
What are the 3 signs of substance dependence?
Which is more severe abuse or dependence?
- tolerance, withdrawal, use over a period of time
- dependence
Relatives of schizophrenics tend to be...
How is phobic anxiety best treated?
in-vivo exposure
How is generalized anxiety best treated?
cognitive behavior therapy
What is narcolepsy associated with?
low muscle tone
what is seasonal mood disorder related to?
melatonin levels
How is factitious disorder best treated?
supportive outpatient therapy
what does idiopathic mean?
unknown cause
how is PTSD best treated?
prolonged exposure
What is MR due to?
How do MR infants respond?
- abnormalities in early embryonic development
- show lack of interest in environment
What are the 3 stages of Alzheimer's?
- depression & anomia & STM decreases
- retrograde & antergrade amnesia, paranoia & labile mood
- apathy & emotional blunting, decrease in ability to care for self
How is circumstantiality different from tangential thinking?
- circumstantiality eventually gets to the point
What is the best predictor of substance use treatment?
severity of substance problems
When does anaclitic depression occur?
in infants
Increasing amphetamines causes?
Decreasing barbituates causes?
- paranoia
- seizures
How often does autism occur?
2-5 cases out of 10,000
Describe onset & duration of dementia
rapid & brief
what is catatonia?
psychomotor disturbance
How is OCD best treated?
response prevention
What is the rate of PDD and ADHD in males?
- PDD 4-5x higher
- ADHD 4-9x higher
How is ODD and CD different?
ODD does not include harm to others of violation of others' rights
what is schizophrenia?
disruption in thinking and affect
how is dementia different from delirium?
how is dementia different from depression?
- delirium includes loss of consciousness/alertness
- depression includes awareness of impairment
Schizophrenia is caused by increased level of which neurotransmitter?
How is schizophrenia different from schizoaffective?
schizoaffective = mood disturbance + schizophrenic features
School phobia in adolescence may be a sign of...
How is schizophrenia different from schizophreniform?
schizophrenia lasts longer than schizophreniform
How is schizophrenia different from delusional disorder?
schizophrenia has bizarre delusions + other symptoms
Depression is caused by low levels of which neurotransmitter?
Name 2 major risk factors for suicide
- hopelessness
- a profoundly depressed person starting to feel a little better
How is specific phobic disorder different from panic disorder?
- the specific is situationally bound
How is PTSD different from Acute stress disorder?
Acute stress occurs right after event and has shorter duration than PTSD
In OCD which is harder to treat, obsession or compulsion?
obsession (because it's your thoughts)
What do factitious and malingering have in common?
How are they different?
- voluntary
- malingering is controllable & has clear external goal
What is a dissociative disorder?
disruption in perception, consciousness, or memory
How is bulimia different from anorexia?
bulimics maintain normal body weight and more responsive to treatment
How is a personality disorder different from other disorders?
personality disorders don't have persistent psychotic symptoms
How is paranoid personality similar to schizotypal?
How is paranoid personality different from schizotypal?
- both interpersonally suspicious & aloof
- different because paranoid personality does not have unusual/odd perceptions
How is paranoid personality similar to schizotypal & schizoid?
How is paranoid personality different from schizotypal & schizoid?
- all have social detachment & restricted affect
- only schizotypal has disturbed perceptions or oddness
How is avoidant personality similar to schizotypal & schizoid?
How is avoidant personality different from schizotypal & schizoid?
- all have social isolation
- different because avoidant personality wants to have social relationships
What is the IQ for mild MR, moderate MR?
- mild IQ= 50-70
- moderate IQ= 35-50
How often do people with autism speak?
Is autism more common in males or females?
What treatment has found some success w/autistics
- rarely
- males
- operant behavioral
What is Rett's disorder?
Is Rett's disorder more common in females or males?
- childhood disorder
- females
What is the co-morbidity of LD & ADHD?
What is the treatment for stuttering?
majority remit on their own
What is the neurological explanation for ADHD?
What is the behavioral explanation for ADHD?
What is the heretibility of ADHD in twins and with regular sibs?
What is common drug of choice with ADHD?
- low blood flow to prefrontal cortex
- disinhibition hypothesis
- .80 among twins or .60 among sibs
- methylphenidate (Ritalin)
When is a label of encopresis given?
When is a label of enuresis given?
- age 4
- age 5
What is reactive attachment disorder?
What are the 2 types?
- inappropriate social relatedness & hypervigilance
- Inhibited & Disinhibited
3 disturbances associated with dementia are agnosia, aphasia, and apraxia. Define them...
Although this is not associated w/dementia, what is alogia?
- agnosia= loss of sensory
- apraxia= loss of motor
- aphasia= loss of language

- alogia= loss of speech
Depressed elderly often appear as...
demented (pseudodementia)
what is anterograde amnesia?
what is retrograde amnesia?
- inability to learn new info (my mnemonic: a in anterograde can be remember as after - so memory after is low)
- inability to recall info (my mnemonic: r in retrograde can be remember as recall)
what is Korsakoff's syndrome?
amnesia due to vitamin deficiency
Which substance use type is associated w/legal problems?
substance abuse
What may chronic cocaine use result in?
emotional blunting
what is confabulation?
filling in memory gaps with fabricated info.
what is antabuse?
a treatment that causes nausea when mixed w/alcohol
what does schizophrenia literally mean?
splitting of the mind
What does positive schizophrenia symptoms mean?
What does negative schizophrenia symptoms mean?
- exaggerations of normal function
- loss of normal function
What is the heretibility of schizophrenia in twins?
Treatment of schizophrenia?
- monozygotic .48 & dizygotic .16
- therapy for family & medication for client
Only one type of bipolar I disorder requires a depressive episode, which is it?
Bipolar I, most recent episode depressed
How common is postpartum depression?
- 50-80% minor mood
- 10-20% mood disorder
What are some symptoms of seasonal affective disorder?
carb cravings & hypersomnia
Which neurotransmitter is associated depression and mania?
- low norepinephrine= depression
- high norepinephrine= mania
Mediation for mania?
Medication for depression?
- lithium
- tricyclics or SSRIs
How effective is EMDR?
not any more effective than other treatments
What is a somatoform Disorder?
How is somatifrom NOS different from undifferentiated somatoform?
What is another name for somatization?
Name 2 other popular somatoform disorders
- uncontrollable & unexplainable physical symptoms
- undifferentiated lasts longer than 6 months
- Briquet's syndrome
- Hypochondriasis & Conversion disorder
How is somatoform, factitious, & malingering different?
somatoform- uncontrollable, not deliberate
factitious- uncontrollable
malingering- not a mental disorder
Order the following disorders from most to least severe... (schizoaffective, schizotypal, schizoid, schizophrenifom, & schizophrenia)
schizophrenia > schizophreniform > schizoaffective > schizotypal > schizoid
What is the prognosis of sociopaths (antisocial personality)?
What type of punishment would they respond to?
- poor prognosis
- loss of money
How is OCD different from obsessive-compulsive personality?
- obsessive-compulsive involves compulsively driven behaviors whereas
- OCD involves intrusive thoughts and rituals
Describe dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, & dissociative identity
- d amnesia= can't remember personal info.
- d fugue= travel away, inability to remember past, and confusion about identity
- d identity= multiple personalities
Most common sexual disorder in males? in females?
- males= premature ejac
- females= orgasmic disorder
Adjustment disorder differs from PTSD and Acute stress disorder because...
less severe
adjustment disorder > acute stress disorder > PTSD
Define the following illusion, delusion, hallucination, magical thinking, ideas of reference
-illusion= misperception
-delusion= false belief
-hallucination= false sensory perception
-magical thinking= false belief that one's actions caused something
-ideas of reference= belief that event has meaning (e.g., superstition)
Name 4 types of seizures & where they occur
- tonic-clonic (grand mal)- violent shaking & sleep after- occurs bilaterally
- absence (petit mal)- brief, no sleep after- occurs bilaterally
- complex-partial - confusion & look dazed - occurs locally
- simple-partial - affects one side of body - occurs locally
What is difference between migrane and tension headache?
How are they treated?
-tension occurs on both sides treated w/biofeedback
-migrane occurs on one side & treated w/thermal
What is Selye's General Adaptation syndrome? The mnemonic is ARE
-Alarm, Resistance, Exhaustion
Which aspect of Type A personality is associated w/health issues?
One symptom of Separation anxiety is...
three signs or symptoms must be present, one of which is excessive worry that harm will befall a major attachment figure
The 2 most common precipitants of smoking relapse are...
presence of smoking cues and negative affect
When narcissistic people experience personal failure and public humiliation, they resort to which defense mechanisms?
first repression, and if that fails, then rationalization and projection
what does 'folie a deux' mean?
two people who share a delusion of similar content
Research regarding the effectiveness of vocational rehabilitation programs has found what to be the best predictor of future employment?
past employment history
Dementia due to HIV Disease results in what 4 symptoms?
Which symptom occurs first?
- forgetfulness
social withdrawal
- fogetfulness, particularly of recent events
In what 2 ways is borderline IQ different from MR?
borderline is IQ >70 w/out significant deficits in adaptive functioning
A woman with Schizophrenia is most likely to have a _________ with Schizophrenia (fill in one of these: mother, father, monozygotic sister, or dizygotic brother)
monozygotic sister (schizophrenia heritability is .50)
At what age do gender differences for OCD begin to become apparent?
And which gender does it occur in sooner?
6 years
How many often are people w/ panic disorder also agoraphobic?
33-50% of individuals diagnosed w/Panic Disorder also have Agoraphobia
What is the best way to track the progression of Alzheimer's disease?
regularly administer cognitive assessments
Which disorder is most likely to respond to pharmacotherapy alone?
What is the med of choice?
Bipolar I
Can a MR student be classified LD?
yes, if their achievement is significantly below their MR IQ level
What is the average weight gain of people who quit smoking?
7-9 pounds
What is the difference between nightmare disorder and sleep terror disorder?
sleep terror involves no recollection of the nightmare
Alcohol Abuse and Dependence has a male to female ratio of about:
5 to 1
What are the 3 aspects of MR classification?
(1) IQ score of 70 or less
(2) deficits in at least TWO areas of adaptive functioning
(3) onset before age 18
which substances may produce delirium?
which will not?
cocaine, cannibus, LSD
What percentage of children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder continue to exhibit signs of the disorder in adulthood?
Significant evidence of retrograde and anterograde amnesia, restlessness, and fluent aphasia are most characteristic of which stage in Alzheimer's Dementia?
stage 2