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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
An exercise for diabetic patients to avoid if they have peripheral neuropathy
Walking on a treadmill (any repetitive weight-bearing exercise that may cause injury to the feet.)
These drugs reduce insulin resistance and hepatic glucose production and therefore do not cause hypoglycemia
Biguanides (Metformin)
_____, _____, and ____ stimulate insulin release and can cause hypoglycemia
sulfonylureas, repaglinide, and nateglinide
2nd generation sulfonylurea that should be used with caution in the elderly - why?
glyburide - because its metabolites clear more slowly than others'
oral antidiabetic often used in older adults because of their relative safety
2nd generation sulfonylureas
Regular insulin onset, peak, and duration
onset < 1hr, peak 2-3 hrs, duration 3-6 hrs
NPH is precipitated with ?
NPH is available in what dosages of premixed NPH/Regular
70/30 and 50/50
NPH onset, peak, and duration
onset 2-4 hrs, peak 4-12 hrs, and duration 10-16 hours
Type of insulin that must not be diluted or mixed with another insulin or solution and is not for IV use
Glargine and Lantus (Aventis)
When should you give rapid acting insulin?
0-15 minutes before meals
Names of the rapid acting insulins
Lispro, Velosulin, Humalog
Rapid acting onset, peak, and duration
onset <= 15 min, peak 30-90 min, and duration is 3-4 hrs
How long after rapid acting insulin has been given would you expect hypoglycemia?
1-3 hours after injection
The only insulin that can be given as an IV drip and through an IV undiluted - soluble and rapidly absorbed
regular insulin
Intermediate acting insulin
Oral anti-diabetic that decreases insulin resistance but has been associated with elevated liver enzymes
Thiazolidinediones - liver function monitoring is important
24 hour, long acting insulin that is given once a day at bedtime
Lantus (Aventis)
U100 means there are ___ units of _____ in _____ milliliters of ______.
100 units of insulin in 1 milliliter of fluid
Destruction of beta cells in the pancreas; little or no endogenous insulin
Type I
Characterized by Polyuria, glucosuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss, and fatigue
Type I
Etiology includes obesity, with diagnosis usually at age > than 30; heredity usually put person at high risk
Type II
Compensatory mechanism to get rid of CO2 (acid) in DKA
Kussmaul's respirations
Major manifestaton of DKA
Dehydration (hyperglycemia >300mg)
Pathophysiological factors include genetic predisposition, viral or toxic chemical agents, and autoimmune attack
Type I
How long can regular insulin be stored unrefrigerated?
Up to 30 days
How long can mixed insulin be stored unrefrigerated?
14 days or <
Important storage fact to remember for insulin
Keep out of sunlight
How/when should Metformin (Glucophage) be given?
Give with meals - do not give if there is a decrease in kidney function
Most common cause of sudden death in diabetes
cardiac problems