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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Tetroma
when caudal eminence doesn't regress
Myelodysplasia
failure of SECONDARY NEURULATION
malformation of spinal cord that is derrived from caudal eminence
-covered with pigmented skin
Dysraphic Errors of Neural Tube

where are errors located
Neural Tube did not close properly

dorsally and at midline
(Micro) Anencephaly
absence of Calvaria
mass of forebrain and midbrain tissue
Alpha Fetoprotein levels detected on Ultrasound
Meningoencephalocele
herniation of brain and meningeal coverings (dura, arachnoid, pia)
BIFID CRANIUM (occiital bone)
**Failing of anterior neuropore
Cranial Meningocele
herniated meningeal sac filled with CSF (no brain tissue herniation)
Cranium Bifidium
openening between skull bones
brain and meninges NOT involved
only a skull defect
most severe form of Spina Bifida
Myeloschisis (Spina Bifida Aperta)
neural plate open dorsally
Two types of Spina Bifida Cystica
Meningomyelocele- herniation of spine and meninges
Meningocele-only meninges with CSF
Spina Bifida Oculta
least severe form of Spina Bifida
vertebral defect- skin dimple, fatty cyst, hair
Diastematomyelia
associated with Spina Bifida Oculta
-bone spur in the spinal cord that can tether the spinal cord and keep it from normal ascension
Holoproencephaly
MIDLINE DEFECT
Failure of regionalization of the PROSENCEPHALON
-single ventricle, single eye, etc.
Megalencephaly
increased proliferation
brain too big
Microencephaly
decreased proliferation
brain too small
Lissencephaly
(error of MIGRATION)
smooth brain- absense of gyri
* TOO LITTLE migration by neuroblasts
Microgyria
(error of MIGRATION)
overmigration/overformation of gyri
Macrogyria
(error of MIGRATION)
failure of migration
huge gyri
Hydrocephalus
enlarge ventricles due to CSF Blockage

1) non-communicationg...block to cerebral aqueduct

2) communicating- CSF can get into subarachnoid space, but can't be reabsorbed by arachnoid granulations
Arnold-Chiari Malformation
caudal displacement of cerebellar structures through the foramen magnum