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107 Cards in this Set

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Suez Canal
A canal to connect Mediterranean and Red Sea.

Needed because of importance of Nile Valley in Egypt and steamships to carry trade.
Boers
Afrikaner - descendants of original Dutch settlers in South Africa
Indian National Congress
Meeting of Indians who wanted to be independent from Britian.
Difficult because religious differences between Hindu and Muslim.
Indirect rule
Colonial government in which locals rulers are allowed to maintain their positions of authority and status
Mestizo
A person of mixed European and native American Indian descent
Direct Rule
Colonial government in which local rulers are removed from power and replaced with new officials brought in from the mother country
Muhammad Ali
Seized power and created a separate Egyptian state.
Brought reforms - modern army, schools, industry for sugar, weapons, ships
Who wanted to control the Suez Canal?
British thought the Suez Canal was the "lifeline to India" and used military force to keep it.
What lead to Africa being divided into different countries
European countries competing to get new land to rule
How did Colonial rule create a new social class of Westernized intellectuals
More were educated in colonial or Western school and understood the West - but still hated Colonial rule.
Even though British rule helped India be a stable country - how did it hurt them
British took money and left Indians poor. They manufactured textiles and Indian women lost jobs. They made them grow cotton for textile and not enough food to eat.
What territories did the United States take under its protection after the Spanish-American War
Cuba and Puerto Rico
Boxers
Secret group of Chinese who practice shadow boxing for exercise. Hated and killed foreigners and Christian missionaries.
First War of Independence
Mexico lost 1/2 of its land to the US
"White Man's Burden"
Poem by Rudyard Kipling. White men have a responsibility to take over and rule inferior non-white people
First Opium War
British grew Opium in India and sent to China. Government angry that so many people got addicted and blocked traders. British attacked Chinese and won. The war established Western influence in China.
Commodore Matthew Perry
Japan was very isolated from the world. Perry was sent by US with warships to open relations with Japan. US gun ships helped with a treaty to treat shipwrecked soldiers better and opened ports for trade.
Extraterritoriality
Europeans lived in their own sections of China and were not subject to Chinese laws.
Henry Pu Yi
An infant who was the last emperor of China.
Revolution of 1911 took place because there was no leadership.
One Hundred Days of Reform
Emperor of China ordered major reforms to modernize the country like the West. This was opposed by the Empress and she later put him in prison.
Meiji
"Enlightened Rule"
Meiji Restoration = Reforms to modernize Japan
-Made local nobles governors of their lands and gave them bonds
-New system of land ownership so peasants owned land, but they were harshly taxed
Why were most Japanese farmers tenants or renters of their land
Because they had to pay big taxes to government even if they had a poor crop
The Meiji government improved schools, transportation, and communications. What were the major industries?
Tea and silk
Weapons and ships
Sake = Japanese rice wine
Spheres of influence - what country had the most influence in China?
Russia took Siberia

Europeans came for trade, mines, railroads:
Britian, France, Germany, Russia and also Japan
Open Door Policy
All countries would have equal access to China for trade but that the Chinese Empire would be maintained.
This was a reaction to so many "spheres of influence"
Who was Matsuhito
Young emperor of Japan that started the Meiji reforms
Tai Ping Rebellion
Peasant Revolt in China - wanted land for peasants and women to be treated equal. People gave up private possessions and shared land, food, money.
General Yuan Shigai
President of new Chinese Republic - Dictator who used murder.
Hated by reformers for destroying new democracy.
Hated by traditionalist for being disloyal to Qing dynasty
Nicholas II
Czar of Russia - last leader of Romanov dynasty.
Murdered with his family
V.I. Lenin
Ruler of the Bolsheviks in Russia
Bolsheviks
Russians who used violent revolution to destroy capitalism
Woodrow Wilson
US President during WWI
The Big Three
US, France, Britian
Storming of the Winter Palace
Bolshevik forces seized the Winter Palace and Lenin took control of the government
Armistice
A truce or agreement to end fighting
Treaty of Versailles
Final peace settlement to end WWI. Germany thought it was too hard on them. Created new map of Europe with new countries.
Fourteen Points
Proposal for lasting peace by President Wilson
Treaty of Versailles made Germany do what
Pay millions
Reduce military size
Give Alsace and Lorraine land
back to France
Poland became a new country
Who was Rasputin
Siberian peasant that Alexandra believed was holy and could cure her son of hemophilia (bleeding) He was very influential to her
What was the Lusitania
British luxury ship - torpedoed and sank by German submarine in 1915
Armenian Genocide
Christian Armenians rebelled to be independent of Ottoman Turks. The government reacted by killing 1 million Armenians and deported 500,000
Battle of Verdun
Area in France where war was fought in trenches in the ground - millions of soldiers died.
Battle of the Somme
Battle in France that killed 21,000 British soldiers in one day by German machine guns. In 4 months the British moved 5 miles and 1 million Germans and Allied soldiers were dead or wounded
Main Alliances
Europes Great powers formed 2 main alliances
Triple Alliance:
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy

Triple Entente:
France, Britian, Russia
Trenches
Warfare on the Western Front.
Horrible conditions, surrounded by dead bodies and rats. Some killed by mustard gas.
Schlieffen Plan
German plan for a 2 front war with France and Russia. Plan was to hold off Russia and take over France - then take over Russia. Resulted in Britian entering the war to protect Belgium.
Why did the US enter WWI?
Because of naval war between Germany and Britian. Britian used navy to block goods from reaching Germany then German submarines sunk the Lusitania.
British Blockade
Britian used the navy to block war materials and good from Germany.
Appeasement
Sstisfying demands of dissatisfied powers in an effort to maintain peace and stability
Blitzkrieg
German for "lightening war", a swift and sudden military attack; used by Germans during WW II to attack Poland
Maginot Line
A series of concrete and steel fences armed with heavy guns along France's border with Germany. French and British were surprised by the Germans who went around instead of through the line to attack.
The Marshall Plan
Helped countries in Europe re-build to they could fight invasion of Communism
Truman Doctrine
US would provide money to countries that were threatened by Communist invasion. (Wanted to stop Soviets from taking Greece)
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
US, Canada, and many European countries promised to help in one of them was attacked
Warsaw Pact
Soviet Union joined with eastern European countries like East Germany, Poland to form a military alliance
Berlin Wall
A wall built by the East German government to keep people from going to West Germany to escape Communism
Nakita Khrushchev
New leader of the Soviet Union in 1955 - communist
Cuban Missile Crisis
Fidel Castro (Cuban leader) wanted nuclear missiles from Soviet Union. The US did not want missiles so close to our country and blocked Soviet ships. This gave each side time to come to a peaceful agreement.
What was the agreement of the Cuban Missile Crisis
Khrushchev would turn back Soviet missiles from Cuba if Kennedy agreed not to invade Cuba - US agreed for peace
Bay of Pigs Invasion
When Fidel Castro took over Cuba, President Kennedy approved a secret plan to Cuban exiles to return and invade Cuba to revolt against Castro. It was a disaster and most exiles were killed at the Bay of Pigs.
Vietnam War
Started to keep Communists of North Vietnam from taking control of South Vietnam. The US felt if they were not stopped Communism would spread. The US did not win.
Charles De Gaulle
French President to return France to a great world power and improved the economy.
West Germany
Formed from 3 western areas after WWII. Developed strong westernized economy and was friendly with the US and France.
What International Organization was established after WW II
NATO?
Satellite States
The countries of Eastern Europe that were economically and politically dependent on the Soviet Union
McCarthyism
US Senator who started the "Red Scare" - fear of Communists. Many government individuals and movie stars were questioned about being communists and lost jobs.
Einsatzgruppen
German death squads who killed over 1 million Jews, Gypsies and others
Scorched-earth policy
Military plan to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy such as crops, food, housing
Lend-Lease Act
US gave war materials in exchange for land to have military bases in other countries
Rosenbergs
Husband and wife that were American Communists convicted of passing nuclear weapon secrets to the Soviets
COMECON
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
Failed attempt by the Soviet to financially help a group of Eastern European countries
Surrealism
Artistic movment showed fantasy, dreams, nightmares.

Salvador Dali most known artist
Mohandas Gandhi
Indian leader of nonviolence and civil disobedience.
Protested British rule of India
Salt March
Britian taxed India on salt and Gandhi protested by walking to the sea with thousands to pick up salt
Good Neighbor Policy
Policy to reject US military force in Latin America.
1933 by Pres. Roosevelt
Stalin
Communist dictator of Soviet Union.
One of greatest mass murderer in history.
New Economic Policy
Plan by Lenin that let peasants sell their produce and own small stores.
Government kept control of banks, mines, industry.
Five Year Plan
Plan by Stalin to transform Russia from agriculture to industry.
Increased production of machines and weapons and oil.
Very hard on workers.
Beer-Hall Putsch
Failed attempt by Hitler to overthrow Munich. He was sent to jail and wrote "Mein Kampf"
Enabling Act
Allowed Hitler to "legally seize" power and ignore the constitution. It let him become a Nazi dictator.
"Island Hopping"
US military plan to capture some Japanese islands in the Pacific and pass over others as they "hopped" up to Japan.
Invasion at Normandy
Largest sea invasion in history
Lend-Lease Act
In WWII, US supplied Britian, Soviet, China, and France with war material in exchange to have military bases in their countries
Nuremberg Trials
Prosecution of Nazi Germany war criminals
Mussolini
Fascist leader of Italy
Fascism
Political philosophy that values the state or government above the individual - creates dictators
Francisco Franco
Spanish dictator that led bloody revolt against the democratic covernment - caused the Spanish Civil War
Great Depression
Economic crisis after WWI
Causes of the Great Depression
1. Poor economies in 1920's. Prices for crops was falling because of overproduction
2. International financial crisis of US Stock market as people took out all their money
The New Deal
President Roosevelt's policy that the government must help employment and created jobs for over 3 million people to build roads, airports, etc.
Mao Zedong
Chinese Communist leader - created the People's Republic of China.
Supported peasant demand for land reform.
Led people on "long March" of 6,000 miles.
Chiang Kai-Shek
Leader of the Chinese Nationist party.
Tried to combine Western ideas with Confucian values of hard work and obedience.
Built roads, railroad, schools
What were the 2 main political forces in China
Nationalists
Communists
Gavrilo
Young Bosnian Serb who shot and killed the Archduke Ferdinand
League of Nations
Group of nations that agreed to settle international disputes to avoid a war.
The US never joined.
The group was not very effective to stop wars.
Dawes plan
Helped reduce the money penalties that Germany had to pay after WWI and gave them money for economic recovery
Wannsee Conference
Meeting of high level Nazis to decide to get rid of all the Jews
Why did the US drop the A-Bomb
All Japanese were required to join the army. The US was afraid our troops would would be killed in a land attack so they dropped the bomb on Japan
Chamberlain
British Prime Minister in WWII believed Hitler would agree to peace
Manhattan Project
Code name for program to build the first Atomic bomb in Los Alamos, New Mexico
Dunkirk
Evacuation and rescue to Allied troops from France in WWII. France was left weak and was taken by Germany.
What country did Germany invade first that caused WWII
Poland
What did Hitler want to change in the Treaty of Versailles
War Guilt Clause
Declared Germany was responsible for starting the war and had to pay for damaages
Franz Ferdinand
Also known as Archduke Francis Ferdinand. Heir to throne of Austria-Hungary. Murdered with wife by Serbian Gavrilo Princip
Kaiser Wilhelm
Also known as Emperor William II of Germany
Helped Austria-Hungary take over Serbia after the murder of Archduke Ferdinand. He gave them a "blank check" of his support.
What did USSR gain from WWII
Control of Eastern Europe