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88 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
deviance definition
a violation of social norms
William Sumner
1903 created mores, folkways, and laws
mores
norms based on broad social morals, if broken, a more serious social condemnation results
ex: fidelity in relationship
folkways
simple everyday norms based on customs, traditions, or etiquette; informal sanctions as result
ex: chivalry, personal space, manors
laws
strongest social norm; supported by codified social sanctions (jail time, ticket, etc) to keep people from committing these acts
the ABC's of deviance
attitudes, behaviors, conditions
attitudes (ABC's)
achieved statuses based on beliefs or convictions
behaviors (ABC's)
mostly achieved statuses based on outward actions; may also be ascribed
conditions (ABC's)
mostly ascribed statuses that are acquired from birth
positive deviance
altruism, charisma, innovation, supra-conformity, innate characteristics
altruism
self-sacrificing
ex: good samaritans
charisma
leaders outside of the norm who have followers and eventually whose views are adopted
ex: intellectuals, shamans, military leaders, prophets
innovation
creative figures that profoundly impact the life of a culture
ex: music films, ben franklin, isaac newton
supra-conformity
collective ecaluations of what behaviors 'ought' to be
ex: extreme moralists, A-students
innate characteristics
subject to environmental conditions
ex: movie stars, pro athletes, based on ascribed status
process of deviance
societal reaction to deviance is a complex social, cultural, and historical process based on shifting definitions; reactions and the deviance are mutually interrelated phenomenon
auxiliary traits
traits associated with the deviance
ex: slender, good looking people get promotions faster than those that are ugly
reaction process
social reaction to event>norms>deviant label>social reaction to label>revised norms>more deviance
prescriptive
tells us what to do in society; normal behavior
ex: seat belts, traffic lights
proscriptive
tell us what not to do
ex: batman costume warning label 'no flying ability'
the 'everyman'
majority group in any society
ex: middle class white men
societal functions of norms
chaos inhibitor; helps predict others' behavior
control behavior
most humans controlled by normative structure
Durkheim
father of sociology; thought society is made of morals (norms, values, laws) that we are taught to monitor their behavior; studied suicide; anomie
functions of deviance
boundary maintenance, group solidarity, innovation, tension reduction
basic components of structural functionalism
norms = necessary; deviance is functional; focus on consequences of behavioral patterns; focus on needs of the system; deviance is universal and persistent
dysfunctional deviance
universal forms of dysfunctional: incest, murder, violent crime
manifest function of deviance
deviance that is obvious or observable
ex: quakers, street criminals, physically challenged
latent function of deviance
underlying/hidden effects of deviance
ex: robbing a house bc they are addicted to drugs; cheating on test
anomie
sense of normlessness
normative + weak bonds
anomic - rules/norms are weak; society lacks regulatory constraints
normative + strong bonds
fatalistic - rigid and unflexable; group stagnates
integrative + weak bonds
egoistic - norms become ineffective in controling behavior; social control functional, weak bond between individual and group
ex: marijuana
integrative + strong bonds
altruistic - group needs and significance override individual existence
structual functionalism doesn't explain...
conflict/competing group/class interests; assumes objective reality of norms
normative structure
regulatory function of society
integrative function
relation between individual and group
symbolic interactionism basics
definition of the situation; action based on meaning, meaning created through interaction, meaning constantly modified and interpreted; negotiated reality; focus on consequences of the act
social learning theories general features
kids not born with tendency to WANT to do bad- they dont know what bad is; deciancy seen as func of learning norms/values; w/o opportunities to learn behaviors related to deviancy, individuals would not become 'deviant'; focus on the process of becoming deviant
differential association
1. deviant behavior learned from surroundings;
2. interactions w/ others teach deviant behavior
3. learned deviance comes from IMMEDIATE environment; media = small role
4. learn why we do it and attitudes about it
5. learn it is in our favor to break norms
6. individual in a +/- environment will follow the ways surrounding them
7. persons involvement in deviant/good behavior dictated by frequency, duration, priority, and intensity; theoretical
8. learning deviant behavior not just imitation, but wanting to know HOW to do it
differential reinforcement
learning involves rewards/punishments; we associate with groups who reward out behavior; learn rewarded behaviors as positive
howard becker
becoming a marijuana smoker
becoming a marijuana smoker
learning> socialization> subculture> identity
learn how to use the drug; learn to identify effect of drug; identify effect as pleasurable; 'handle' the drug; acquire the drug; neutralize impact of social control
labeling theory
theorists explore how/why acts were defined as deviant and why others weren't; didn't see deviants as evil but as people who have a deviant status placed upon them by society; less emphasis on deviant acts, rather emphasize social reaction to them which forms the individuals view of themself; individual gets labeled as whore, theif, junkie, etc
effects of labeling
looking-glass self; self fulfilling prophecy
goal of social conflict theorists
explain deviance within economic and social contexts and show connections among social class, deviance, and social control
focus: relationship of personal of group power in controlling and defining deviance; power/control - deviance as a political process; creation/enforcement of law
willem bonger
if wealth is unequally distributed and ppl believe wealth = superiority, then the inferior will be more deviant trying to attain wealth
law and defining deviance is tool for ruling class
control through institutions run by/for elite
conflict theory
strengths: shows how class conflict influences behavior
major premise: deviance = func of class conflict; def of what is deviant is controlled by people in power
structural conflict theory
major premise: law designed to keep capitalist economic system
strengths: explains existence of white-collar crime and business control laws
instrumental conflict theory
premise: criminals are revolutionaries; real crime is sexism, racism, profiteering
strengths: broadens definition of deviancy; explains historical development of law
Marxist theory
premise: capitalism creates class conflict; crime = rebellion of lower class
strengths:relates economic structure and crime rates
radical feminist theory
premise: capital system creates patriarchy, oppresses women
strengths: explains gender bias, violence against women, and repression
Goode's argument against social conflict theories
not all conflict represents social or economic class; crime exists in socialist countries; punishment happens in capitalist and socialist countries
social control theory - main question
why DONT people commit crime and delinquency?
Travis Hirschi
most detailed description of modern social control theory; wrote 'causes of delinquency' in '69; thought low self control was NOT biological
causes of low self control
all born w/o self control; it is established in early childhood
premise of social bond theory (social control theory)
Hirschi thought deviancy occurs if individuals aren't properly socialized into establishing a strong bond to society
4 elements that form the social bond (Hirschi)
emo Attachment to significant others; Commitment - efforts toward conventional goals; Involvement - keeping busy at conventional activities; Belief - cognitive affirmation of conventional values
Hirschi's update to social bond theory
principal cause of deviant behaviors - ineffective child rearing produces people with low self-control
external controls
attachment, commitment, involvement
internal controls
belief
sociological research
research and theory go together; application of scientific method minimizes problems inherent with 'common sense'
research model
select topic; define problem; review literature; form hypothesis; choose research design; collect data; analyze results; share results
values in research
weber - sociology must be VALUE FREE; remain objective
observational methods
direct and indirect
direct observational method
behavior observed firsthand
indirect observational method
only EVIDENCE of behavior is observed
participant (observational methods)
researcher participates in activities
non participant (observational methods)
doesn't participate in group while observing
ex: drug cultures
overt (observational methods)
ppl being observed are aware of presence and intentions
covert (observational methods)
not aware of presence and intentions
ex: white supremacy groups
inductive logic (observational methods)
from data to theory
deductive logic (observational methods)
from theory to data
exploratory (observational methods)
find out relationships between variables
problems with observational studies
subject reactivity to being watched; 'going native' - getting too involved; sampleing issues - accurate representation?; ethical isssues
moral panic
ideologically constructed to construe a 'chemical bogeyman' as the core cause of a wide array of existing social problems
ex: prohibition - drinking caused crime, poverty, broken families, unemployment etc
folk devil
the enemy in a moral panic; a group or thing that has been scapegoated as cause of social problems
ex: Harrison act banning cocaine when working class and blacks began to use cocaine
characteristics of a moral panic
widespread; over reactive; volatile; hostile; largely irrational
7 ingredients to moral panic
1 kernel of truth
2 media magnification - ROUTINIZATION OF CARICATURE - making worst cases seem typical
3 moral entrepreneur - someone to take the idea and run with it
4 professional interest groups - groups claim expertise; motivation to support panic
5 historical context of conflict - for society to change, must be apprehension about its future
6 link deviant behavior to a 'dangerous class'; turns a threatening group into fold devil
7 scapegoat the action for many problems; most important step
rule creators
Becker calls them 'crusading reformers'; usually already powerful/charismatic/resourceful person
2 goals for the entrepreneur
1 generate public awareness - see deviant behavior as threatening, so they construct the idea that laws and rules are necessary
2 bring about a moral conversion - convince others of their views
cultural impacts of status politics
polarized symbolic moral universes
ex: smoking vs nonsmoking; assimilative reform; coercive reform
assimilative reform
educate and lift the lower status group to the reformers 'higher' plane
coercive reform
deviants deny the moral and status superiority of the reformers universe, therefore needs to be controlled through law and force
2 problems associated with rule enforcers
must demonstrate the problem still exists
must show that they are effective
rule enforcers
most of their position based on respect; attitude about problem is professional
primary forces behind scares
med profession, legislators, pharmaceutical prof, gov depts, scientists, religious leaders often have unrelated reasons for creating 'scares'
components include: economic, control, moralistic, and conformity reasons