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51 Cards in this Set

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Cloward and Ohlin suggested that in order to understand deviance not only must we consider access to legitimate means and goals but we must also consider the structure of what?
differential illegitimate opportunities
Structural functionalists differ from ethnomethodologists in that structural functionalists assume that society...
is real and exists as a social system
When, even if roles are played properly, neither system nor individual goals are met then a system can be considered...
disorganized
Martin Luther King Jr’s “Letter from a Birmingham Jail” illustrates how deviance can be a result of a lack of consistency between...
values and norms
Deviance is often the result of society being structured so that it is difficult, if not impossible, for people to play their roles properly. When a person is required to play more than one role at a time, this is called...
role conflict
Mertons’ anomie theory explains that deviance occurs when there is a disjuncture between...
means and goals
A wealthy person may perceive himself to have greater relative deprivation than a poor person.
true
Diary of a Harlem Family illustrates that...
average people resort to deviance in very difficult or impossible situations
In “Marijuana and the Politics of Reality”, Erich Good argues that...
the contradictory conclusion on the effects of marijuana is the result of competing social constructions of reality
Durkheim, a forefather of structural functionalism, stated that social facts are “comme chose.” This is a French phrase meaning...
like things or objects
Neil Smelser conceived of society as being comprised of four levels of abstraction: values, norms, roles, facilities. He said disorganization would result from _______ between them.
inconsistency
As norms implement values, roles implement...
norms
A ________ is how a person in a given position in society is expected to interact with others.
role
Societies can be structures so its difficult for people to play their roles properly. Because people play several different roles, role conflict is apt to occur if roles are not separated in some way. A second problem, role strain is caused by...
contradictory expectations within a role
Role conflict and role strain, when they result in deviance, illustrate how ______ causes deviance.
society
Anomie is a French word for...
normlessness
Anomie results when there is a disjuncture between goals and...
social means for achieving these goals
According to anomie theory, deviance occurs...
when people are unable or unwilling to use legitimate means to achieve legitimate goals
Merton’s theory has been criticized because...
-it does not fit a pluralist society
-it contains a social class bias
-it assumes deviance is a lower class phenomena
Cohen suggests that juvenile delinquency is a result of lower class youth’s inability to attain their goals in middle class dominated school systems. He differs from Merton in that...
Cohen sees their delinquency as a group solution to common stress
In the all white suburban high school of the early 1960’s, mentioned in the text, the students did not smoke marijuana because...
they did not have the opportunity to do so
Structural functionalists believe that in order for society and its members to survive certain functional requisites must be met. Which of the following are examples of functional requisites?
a. adaptation to the environment
b. maintenance of order
c. reproduction of new members
d. constructing beliefs that relieve anxiety and make members feel responsible for one another
e. *(all of the above)*
All of Jane’s friends had jewelry and new clothes, but she had no money to buy them. She, therefore, resorted to shoplifting to get what she wanted. According to Merton’s theory, her behaviors is an example of...
innovation
A “street person” may be perceived as deviant because he or she is...
underconforming and eccentric
According to Lombroso’s theory, deviants...
differ biologically from non-deviants
H.H. Goddard believed that...
deviance was a genetic family trait
Psychoanalytic theory suggest that if our parents often brutally attacked us during our childhood, our aggressive drive might...
lead us to commit extremely brutal and bizarre murder
Metaphysical explanations of deviance emphasize...
a. the power of natural forces to create deviance
b. the power of social environments to create deviance
c. the power of biology to create deviance
or
d. *(none of the above)*
In general, the biological approach to explaining deviance sees...
human behavior linked to interaction between brain function and environment
The Freudian theory of personality suggests that deviant behavior...
is generated by breakdowns in the functions of the id, ego and super ego
Which of the following is not characteristic of sociological approach to deviance...
it focuses on the individual
Many of America’s first settlers were...
religious deviants
The idea that deviance is a natural, although disorganized, phenomenon is called ...
social disorganization
When sociologists say that deviance can be functional, they mean that deviance...
contributes to the smooth operation of the social system
What is not a sociological explanation of deviance?
lack of concern for others
If deviance is the result of societal factors, then eliminating deviance requires...
changing the social system
Non-sociological explanations of deviance focus on the...
individual
Sociological explanations of deviance focus on the...
social context
Two criteria for defining deviant behavior are intention and motivation; a third criterion is...
frequency
While a statistical norm is a description of what is occurring, a cultural norm is...
an expectation of what should occur
Setting the table with the knife and spoon on the right and the fork on the left is an example of...
folkway
Sociologists divide norms into two types, folkways and mores. Which of the two are more serious rules?
mores
_______ are norms that reflect basic societal values.
mores
Norms which have the force of an institution behind them are called...
laws
Usually, breaking a law implementing a mos is considered a...
felony
France, same sex friends holding hands are considered...
normal
_______ have values and norms both shared with and different from the larger culture.
subcultures
A subculture member who conforms to his subculture’s norms is considered deviant by...
members of the larger culture
According to the article, smoking has become deviant in recent years due to...
changing public perception
Socrates outraged his contemporaries by ...
acknowledging the intellectual abilities of women
“A Case of Psychotic Navaho Male” illustrates that...
normal rational behavior in one culture may appear as symptoms of insanity in another culture