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21 Cards in this Set

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Amygdala
This part of the brain is involved in our emotions, emotional learning, and memory. Each hemisphere contains its amygdala, shaped like an almond and located deep in the brain, near the inner surface of each temporal lobe.
Axon
The part of the neuron that transmits messages to other neurons, muscles, or glands of the body.
Brain
An oblong organ with folds, furrows, and a fissure or groove down the center. This groove separates the brain into two hemispheres.
Brainstem
The lower part of the brain that includes the medulla, pons, midbrain, and cranial nerves. It directs our reflexes, vital signs, and automatic control of the eye, face, and head. It also helps us interpret basic sensations involving taste, hearing, vision, and balance.
Critical Period
A developmental phase in which the brain requires certain environmental input or it will not develop normally.
Doll's Eye Maneuver
an eye movement reflex present in newborn babies that allows the eyes to remain focused forward when his/her head is turned in any direction.
Emotional Competence
: A child who is emotionally stable is self-motivated, can stick to a task, is capable of understanding others and can build trusting relationships, can cope with stress and is able to manage strong feelings.
Exuberant Period
The phase in which a child's number of synapses exceeds the number present in adulthood.
Fontanel
The diamond-shaped indentation on the front (and back) of the infant's skull where the unconnected bones come close to each other, but don't actually attach.
Hippocampus
This part of the brain is important in processing and storing long-term memories
Limbic System
Located deep within the brain, just above the brain stem. It plays an important role in human emotion, learning and memory.
Lobes
The four areas of the brain that are demarcated by major fissures
Which lobe is primarily responsible for vision
The occipital lobes, located in the back of the brain
Which lobe is involved in higher sensory-motor coordination and language functions
The parietal lobes, in the upper left and right sides of the brain
Which lobe is involved in memory, hearing, language, and emotion.
Temporal lobes located above and behind the ears on the left and right sides of the brain
What lobe is in involved in movement, complex judgment, emotional regulation, problem solving, decisions, planning, and creativity
The frontal lobes
Moro Response
In response to a slight drop of the head or elevation of the feet, the baby arches his back, flings his arms outwards, extends his legs, and opens his hands
Plasticity
The brain's ability to change as a result of experience or injury
Pruning
A process in brain development whereby unused synapses (connections among brain cells), are shed.
Stepping Reflex
Newborn babies reflexively "walk" when held upright with feet touching a flat surface, like a table.
Windows of Opportunity or sensitive period
when the brain is capable of learning most efficiently and thoroughly. During these sensitive periods, a child can benefit most from the learning he or she experiences through his or her five senses