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77 Cards in this Set

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head sparing
The biological protection of the brain when malnutrition affects body growth. The brain is the last part of the body to be damaged by malnutrition
norm
An average, or standard, measurement, calculated from the measurements of many individuals within a specific group or population
percentile
A point on a ranking scale of 1 to 99. The 50th percentile is the midpoint; half the people rank higher and half lower
REM sleep
Rapid eye movement sleep, a stage of sleep characterized by flickering eyes behind closed lids, dreaming, and rapid brain waves
neuron
A nerve cell of the central nervous system.
head sparing
The biological protection of the brain when malnutrition affects body growth. The brain is the last part of the body to be damaged by malnutrition
norm
An average, or standard, measurement, calculated from the measurements of many individuals within a specific group or population
percentile
A point on a ranking scale of 1 to 99. The 50th percentile is the midpoint; half the people rank higher and half lower
REM sleep
Rapid eye movement sleep, a stage of sleep characterized by flickering eyes behind closed lids, dreaming, and rapid brain waves
neuron
A nerve cell of the central nervous system.
cortex
The outer layers of the brain in humans and other mammals. Most thinking, feeling and sensing are involved here
axon
A nerve fiber that extends from a neuron and transmits electrical impulses from that neuron to the dendrites of other neurons
dendrite
A nerve fiber that extends from a neuron and recieves electrical impulses transmitted from other neurons via their axons
synapse
The intersection between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of other neurons.
transient exuberance
The great increase in the number of dendrites that occurs in an infant's brain during the first two years of life
experience-expectant
Refers to brain functions that require basic common experiences (which the infant can be expected to have) in order to develop normally
experience-dependent
Refers to brain functions that depend on particular, variable experiences and that therefore may or may not develop in a particular infant
prefrontal cortex
THe area of cortex at the front of the brain that specializes in anticipation, planning, and impulse control
self-righting
The inborn drive to remedy a developmental deficit
sensitive period
A time when a certain kind of growth or development is most likely to happen or happens most readily
sensation
The response of a sensory system when it detects a stimulus
perception
The mental processing of sensory information, when the brain interprets a sensation
binocular vision
The ability to focus the two eyes in a coordinated manner in order to see one image
motor skill
Any ability to move a part of the body, from a large leap to a small movement of the eyelid. These are learned, not automatic
reflex
A responsive movement that seems automatic because it almost always occurs in reaction to a particular stimulus.
Gross Motor skills
Physical abilities involving large body movements, such as walking and jumping
fine motor skills
Physical abilities involving small body movements, especially of hands and fingers, such as drawing and picking up a coin
immunization
A process that stimulates the body's immune system to defend against attack by a particular contagious disease.
sudden infant death syndrom
A situation in which seemingly healthy infants, at least 2 months of age, suddenly stops breathing and dies unexpectedly while asleep. The cause is unknown, but it is correlated with sleeping on the stomach and having parents who smoke
protein-calorie malnutrition
A conditio in which a person does not consume sufficient food of any kind. The results in several illnesses, weight loss, and sometimes death.
kwashiorkor
A disease of chronic malnutrition during childhood, in which a deficiency of protein makes the child more vulnerable to other diseases, such as measles, diarrhea, and influenza
adaptation
The cognitive processes by which new information is taken in and responded to. Includes both assimilation and accommodation
sensorimotor intelligence
Piaget's term for the intelligence of infants during the first period of cognitive development, when babies think by using their senses and motor skills
primary circular reactions
The first of three types of feedback loops, this one involving the infant's own body. THe infant senses motion, sucking, noise and so on, and tries to understand them
secondary circulaar reactions
The second of three types of feedback loops, this one involving people and objects. The infant is responsive to other people and to toys and other objects that can be manipulated
object permanence
The realization that objects still exist when they cannot be seen, touched or heard
tertiary circular reactions
The third of three types of feedback loops, this one involving active exploration and experimentation. THe indant explores a range of new activities, varying his or her responses as a way of learning about the world
little scientist
Piaget's term for the stage-five toddler, who experiments without anticipating the results
deferred imitation
A sequence in which an infant first percieves something that someone else does and then performs the same action a few hours or even days later
habituation
The process of getting used to an object or event throguh repeated exposure to it
fMRI
functional magnetic resonance imaging. a measuring technique in which the brain's magnetic properties indicate activation anywhere in the brain
information-processing theory
a perspective that compares human thinking processes, by analogy,to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, connections, stored memories and output
affordance
an opportunity for perception and interaction that is offered by people, places, and objects in the environemtn
visual cliff
an experimental apparatus that gives an illusion of a sudden drop between one horizontal surface and another
dynamic perception
perception that is primed to focus on movement and change
people preference
The innate attraction that human babies have to other humans, evident in visual, auditory, tactile, and other preferences
reminder session
a perceptual experience that helps a person recollect an idea or experience, without testing whether the person remembers it at the moment.
child-directed speech
The high-pitched, simplified, and repetitive ways adults speak to infants, also called baby talk or motherese
babbling
The extended repetition of certain syllables, such as ba-ba-ba, that begins at about 6 or 7 months of age
naming explosion
A sudden increase in an infant's vocabulary, especially in the number of nouns, beginning at about 18 months
holophrase
A single word that is used to express a complete, meaningful thought
grammar
All the methods, word order, verb forms, and so on, that languages use to communicate meaning apart from the words themselves
langauge acquisition device (LAD)
Chomsky's term for a hypothesized brain structure that enables humans to learn language, including the basic aspects of grammar, vocabulary and intonation
social smile
A smile evoked by a human face. normally evident in infants at about 6 weeks after birth.
stranger wariness
An infant's expression of concern, a quiet stare, clinging to a familiar person or sadness when a stranger appears. This signifies maturation: the baby recognizes the person as strange
separation anxiety
Distress when a familiar caregiver leaves: most obvious between 9 and 14 months
self-awareness
a person's realization that he or she is distinct individual, with independent body, mind and actions
trust versus mistrust
Erikson's first psychosocial stage. Infants learn basic trust if the world is secure place where their basic needs are met
autonomy versus shame and doubt
Erikson's second crisis of psychosocial development. Toddlers either succeed or fail in gaining a sense of self-rule over their own actions and bodies
social learning
Learning by observing others
working model
in cognitive theory, a set of assumptions that the individual uses to organize perceptions and experiences
temperament
Inborn differences between one person and another in emotions, activity, and self-control. originates in genes but affected by child-rearing practices.
goodness of fit
A similarity of temperament and values that produces a smooth interaction between the individual and the social context, including family, school and community
ethnotheory
A theroy that underlies the values and practices of a culture and that becomes apparent through analysis and comparison of those practices, although it is not usually apparent to the people within the culture
proximal parenting
Parenting practices that involve close physical contact with the child's entire body such as cradling and swinging
distal parenting
Parenting practices that focus on the intellect more than the body, such as conversing and plying with an object
synchrony
A coordinated, rapid and smooth exchange of responses between caregiver and infant
still-face technique
An experimental device in which an adult keeps his or her face unmoving and without expression in face to face interaction with an infant
attachment
According to Ainsworth "an affectional tie" that one person forms with another, a tie that binds them together in space and endures over time
secure attachment
A relationship of trust and confidence. During infancy, it enables a child to play independently and happily, reassured by the caregiver's proximity
insecure-avoidant attachment
A pattern of attachment in which one person avoids connection with another, as when an infant seems not to care about a caregiver's presence, departure, or return
insecure-resistant/ambivalent attachment
A pattern of attachment in which anxiety and uncertainty are evident, as when an infant is very upset at separation and both resists and seeks contact on reunion
Strange situation
A laboratory procedure to measure attachment by evoking infant reactions to stress
disorganized attachment
A category of attachment that is marked by inconsistent behavior of the infant in reaction to the caregiver's departure and return
social referencing
Seeking information about an unfamiliar or ambiguous object or event by observing someone else's expressions and reactions.
family day care
Child care that occurs in a paid caregiver's home and involves six or fewer children of various ages
center day care
Child care that usually occurs in a place expecially designed for the purpose, where several paid providers care for many children.