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13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
What is a process?
systematic change that affects a class of sounds. e.g fronting,backing,deaffrication
think of differences between a process and a rule
What is a rule?
formal statement of a process, can not be stated as a process because it may be specific to the child.
think of differences between a process and a rule
Why may a rule be used?
Some children's speech is easier to describe in rules
What things should be noted in a speech analysis?
Phonetic inventory, vowel inventory, voice place and manner, SODA- substitutions omissions distortions and additions, phonological processes/rules, phonotactics
What are the things used to analyse speech?
What is SODA used for?
Soda is used as an articulation analysis for substitutions,omissions, distortions and additions
what does SODA stand for?
What things should be done along with analysis?
# look for patterns across sounds, is it across the whole group?
#can a child produce the sound in isolation?
#compare with articulation norms
#compare with phonological norms
#are errors developmental or atypical?
What other factors are important when looking at a child's speech?
What influences a child's intelligibility?
1) number & types of sound errors
2) consistency of errors
3) frequency of ocurrence of error sounds
4) phonological processes used
How can intelligibility be measured?
1) Open-set word identification(conversation)
2) closed-set word identification (prescribed list-->transcription)
3) Rating scale procedures
4) estimation from speech sound testing (from test determine amount of processes present)
What things are used to measure intelligibility...a list or spontaneous speech?
What are the percentages on a sample rating scale?
Intelligible: +70% understood
Difficult to understand: 60-70% understood
Unintelligible: less than 60% understood
What factors need to be considered when looking at severity of speech?
1) effect of disorder upon speech intelligibility
2) degree of concern disorder causes child, parent and teachers
3) consequences of disorder(does it impact on the child's functioning?)
What are the ways in which we measure severity of speech?
#Percentage occurence of process
#Clinicians rating
#Developmental Vs non-developmental
How do we work out the Percentage of consonants correct?
PCC= no of consonants correct/the total number of phonemes in sample X 100.
formula for PCC calculation
How do we work out the percent of phonemes correct?
PPC= no of phonemes correct/total number of phonemes in sample x 100
formula for PPC calculation