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60 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
amniotic sac
bag of fluid inside a woman's womb where the unborn baby develops and grows
apoptosis
death of cells that occurs as a normal and controlled part of an organism growth or development
cephalocaudal development
infants learning to use their upper limbs before their lower limbs
colic
severe, often fluctuating pain in the abdomen caused by intestinal gas or obstruction in the intestines and suffered especially by babies
conception
the action of conceiving a child or of a child being conceived
developmental resilience
individuals ability to properly adapt to stress and adversity
dose response relation
relationship between the amount of exposure and the resulting changes in body function
embryonic stem cells
stem cells derived from the undifferentiated inert mass cells of a human embryo
epigenesis
the theory that an embryo develops progressively from an undifferentiated egg cell
fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy
fetus
unborn offspring of a mammal, in particular an unborn human baby more than eight weeks after conception
fraternal twin
one of a pair of twins, not necessarily resembling each other out of the same sex, that develop from two separately fertilized ova
gametes
reproductive cell having a single set of chromosomes, especially a mature sperm or egg
identical twin
one of a pair of twins who develop from a single fertilized oven and therefore have the same genotype, are of the same sex, and usually resemble each purge closely
infant mortality
the death of children under the age of one year
low birth weight
birth weight of a live born infant of less than 5 pounds 8 pounds regardless of gestational age
neural tube
a hollow structure from which the brain and spinal cord form
phylogenetic continuity
development or evolution of a particular group of organisms
placenta
flattened circular organ in the uterus, nourishing and maintaining the fetus through the umbilical cord
sensitive period
time or stage in a person's development when they are more responsive to certain stimuli and quicker to learn particular skills
small for gestational age
babies who are smaller in stuffed than normal for gestational age, weight before the 10th percentile for gestational age
teratogen
agent or factor that causes malformation of an embryo
umbilical cord
flexible cordlike structure containing blood vessels and attaching a human fetus to the placenta during gestation
zygote
diploid cell resulting from fusion of two haploid gametes; a fertilized ovum
association areas
a region of the cortex of the brain that connects sensory and motor areas, and that is though to be concerned with the higher mental activities
behavior genetics
the field of study that exposes the role of genetics in animal behavior
cerebral cortex
the layer of the cerebellum, composed of folded gray matter and playing an important role in consciousness
cerebral hemisphere
each of their two parts of the cerebellum in the brain
cerebral lateralization
functional specialization of the brain, with some skills occurring primarily in the left hemispheres, and others occurring primarily in the right
corpus callosum
broad band of nerve fibers joining the two hemispheres of the brain
event-related potential
measured brain response that is a direct result of specific sensory, cognitive or motor event
failure to thrive
indicates insufficient weight gain or inappropriate weight loss
frontal lobe
each of the paired lives of the brain lying directly behind the forehead, including areas concerned with behavior, learning, personally, and voluntary movement
frontal lobe
each of the paired lives of the brain lying directly behind the forehead, including areas concerned with behavior, learning, personally, and voluntary movement
glial cells
sound neurons and provide support for and insulation between them; most abundant cell types in their nervous system
heritability
measures the fraction of phenotype variability that can be attributed to genetic variation
multifactorial
involving our dependent on a number of factors or causes
myelin sheath
insulating cover that surrounds an axon
neurogenesis
the growth and development of the nervous system
norm of reaction
curve that relates, for a given genotype, the contribution of environmental variation to observe phenotypic variation
occipital lobe
the readings lobe in each cerebral hemispheres of the brain
parietal lobe
either of the paired lobes at the top of the brain, including areas concerned with reception and correlation of sensory information
phenylketonuria (PKU)
inherited inability to metabolize phenylalanine that causes brain and nerve damage if untreated
polygenic inheritance
heredity of complex characters that are determined by a large number of genes, each one usually having a relatively small effect
synaptic pruning
neurological regulatory process, which facilitate changes in neural structure by reducing the overall number of neurons and synapses
synaptogenesis
formation of synapses between neurons in the nervous system; occurs during wasn't brain development; continues throughout a healthy person's lifespan
temporal lobe
each of the paired lobes of the brain lying beneath the temples, including areas concerned with the understanding of speech
structured interview
fixed questions for all
clinical interview
thorough investigation of each individual
naturalistic observation
experimenter attempts to observe natural behavior with minimal interference
structured observation
experimenter controls experience of participants
longitudinal design
same children, long time
cross-sectional design
different children for each age group
microgenic design
same children, many observations, short period of time
correlational coefficient
relationship between two variables, range from -1 to +1
quasi-experimental
"natural experiments" with pre-existing groups
multiple regression
when you can't apply an experimental design
nature and nurture
early development is largely canalized, but it can be affected by experience
the active child
fetus' own activity contributes to its development
continuity/discontinuity
change is gradual but development is divided into stages