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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Developmental Psychology
The study of physical, intellectual, social and moral changes across a lifespan
Nature vs. Nurture Controversy
Dealing with the extent to which heredity and the environment each influence behavior
Maturation
Biological growth processes that bring about orderly changes in behavior, thought, or physical growth
Continuity vs. Discontinuity
Deals with the question of whether development is gradual, cumulative change over a lifespan
Stability vs. Change
Deals with the issue of whether or not personality traits present during infancy endure throughout the lifespan
Longitudinal
Study that follows the same group of people to evaluate changes
Cross-sectional study
Researchers assess developmental changes with respect to a particular factor by evaluating different age groups
Cohort
Group of people in one age group
Cohort Effect
Differences in the experiences of each age group as a result of growing up in different time periods
Cohort-Sequential
Cross-sectional groups are assessed at least 2 times over a span of months-years, instead of only once
Critical Period
A time interval during which specific stimuli have a major effect on development that the stimuli do not produce at other times
Prenatal Development
Begins with conception, ends with birth
Zygote
Fertilized ovum with genetic material
Embryo
Term for individual after about 2 weeks, blastocyst is embedded in lining of uterus
Fetus
Developing human organism from about 9 weeks after conception to birth
Teratogens
Harmful chemicals and viruses that cause birth defects
Fetal Alcohol syndrome
(FAS)A cluster of abnormalities that occurs in babies of mothers who drink alcohol
Neonates
Term for new born
Rooting
Baby’s response of turning its head when touched of the cheek and then trying to put the stimulus in its mouth
Grasping Reflex
When the infant closes its fingers tightly around an object
Moro/Startle Reflex
A loud noise/drop causes the infant to automatically arch its back, fling out its limbs and quickly retract them
Habituation
Decreased response to a repeated stimulus
Puberty
Sexual Maturation
Primary Sex Characteristics
Reproductive organs
Secondary Sex Characteristics
Non-reproductive features associated with sexual maturity
Menarche
Menstrual Period
Menopause
Cessation of the ability to reproduce
Assimilation
Fitting new info into existing schemas
Accommodation
Modifying a schema to fit new info
Sensorimotor stage
1st Stage of Cognitive Development; Baby explores world using senses and motor interactions with objects in environment
Object Permanence
Understanding that objects exist even when out of sight
Stranger anxiety
Fear of unfamiliar people
Preoperational Stage
2nd Stage of Cognitive Development; Language develops with ability to think
Egocentric
Seeing the world from your own point of view
Animisn
Belief that all things are living just like yourself
Artificialsim
Belief that all objects are made by people
Concrete-operational Stage
Children develop simple logic and master conservation concepts
Conservation concepts
That changes in the form of an object do not alter physical properties
Formal Operational Stage
4th Stage of Cognitive Development; Children can think abstractly and hypothetically
Internalization
Absorbing info from a specified social environmental context
Zone of Proximal Development
(ZDP) The range between the level at which a child can solve a problem working alone/with an adult/other children
Fluid Intelligence
Abilities requiring speed or rapid learning
Crystallized Intelligence
Learned knowledge and skills the improves over time
Alzheimer’s Disease
Fatal degenerative disease in which brain neurons progressively die
Preconventional Level
Children do the right thing to avoid punishment
Object Permanence
Understanding that objects exist even when out of sight
Stranger anxiety
Fear of unfamiliar people
Preoperational Stage
2nd Stage of Cognitive Development; Language develops with ability to think
Egocentric
Seeing the world from your own point of view
Animisn
Belief that all things are living just like yourself
Artificialsim
Belief that all objects are made by people
Concrete-operational Stage
Children develop simple logic and master conservation concepts
Conservation concepts
That changes in the form of an object do not alter physical properties
Formal Operational Stage
4th Stage of Cognitive Development; Children can think abstractly and hypothetically
Internalization
Absorbing info from a specified social environmental context
Zone of Proximal Development
(ZDP) The range between the level at which a child can solve a problem working alone/with an adult/other children
Fluid Intelligence
Abilities requiring speed or rapid learning
Crystallized Intelligence
Learned knowledge and skills the improves over time
Alzheimer’s Disease
Fatal degenerative disease in which brain neurons progressively die
Preconventional Level
Children do the right thing to avoid punishment
Conventional Level
Children follow rules to live up to the expectations of others
Postconventional Level
Idea of “social contract”
Social Development
Influence of others on the development of a person
Culture
Behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions transmitted from one generation to another
Attachment
Forming a close relationship with caregiver
Temperament
Baby’s natural disposition to show a particular mood
Self-Awareness
Consciousness of oneself as a person
Social Referencing
Observing the behavior of others in social situations to obtain info/guidance
Authoritarian
Parenting style; Strict rules which children are expected to follow w/ corresponding punishments
Authoritative
Parenting style; Parents set limits but also explain reason for them, make exceptions when deemed appropriate
Permissive
Parenting Style; Parents do not set firm guidelines, if any
Gender
Sociocultural dimension of being biologically male/female
Gender roles
Sets of expectations that prescribe how males and females should act/think/feel
Gender Identity
Our sense of being male/female
Gender Schema Theory
Children form a schema of gender that filters their perceptions of the world
Gender Role Stereotypes
Our impressions/beliefs about males/females
Androgyny
Presence of desirable masculine/feminine characteristics in the same person
Stereotype Threat
Anxiety that performance will confirm a negative stereotype
Gender Role Stereotypes
Our impressions/beliefs about males/females
Androgyny
Presence of desirable masculine/feminine characteristics in the same person
Stereotype Threat
Anxiety that performance will confirm a negative stereotype