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67 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Change in number or amount, such as in height, weight, or size of vocabulary
Quantitative Change
Change in kind, structure, or organization, such as the change from nonverbal to verbal communication
Qualitative Change
In what stage do children search for personal identity?
Identity vs. identity confusion (puberty to young adulthood) - Erikson
Characteristic of an event that ooccurs in a similar way for most people in a group
Normative events
Characteristic of an unusual event that happens to a particular person, or a typical event that happens at an unusual time of life.
Non-normative events
Group of people growing up at about the same time
Specific time when a given event, or its absence has a specific impact on development
Critical period
The group receiving the treatment under study in an experiment
Experimental Group
Coherent set of logically related concepts that seeks to organize, explain and predict data
Possible explanations for phenomena, used to predict the outcome of research
Research method in which behavior is studied in natural settings without intervention or manipulation
Naturalistic observation
Research method in which all participants are observed under the same controlled conditions
Laboratory observation
A group of people in an experiment, similar to those in the experimental group, who do not receive the treatment whose effects are to be measured.
Control group
Three domains of human development
Physical development
Cognitive development
Psychosocial development
Eight periods of human development
Prenatal period (c-b)
Infancy & toddlerhood (b-3y)
Early childhood (3y-6y)
Middle childhood (6y-11y)
Adolescence (11y-20y)
Young adulthood (20y-40y)
Middle adulthood (40y-65y)
Late adulthood (65y & over)
Freud's Psychosexual stage theory
Oral (b to 12-18m)
Anal (12-18m to 3y)
Phallic (3y-6y)
Latency (6y-puberty)
Genital (puberty thru adlthd)
Erikson's Psychosocial stage theory
Basic trust vs. mistrust
Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
Initiative vs. guilt
Industry vs. inferiority
Identity vs. idntty confusion
Intimacy vs. isolation
Generativity vs. stangnation
Ego integrity vs. despair
Piaget's Cognitive Stages
Sensorimotor (b-2y)
Preoperational (2y-7y)
Concrete operations (7y-11y)
Formal operations (11y thru adulthood)
What is a Behaviorist most concerned with?
Cognitive development concerned with "basic mechanics of learning" or "how behavior changes in response to experience"
What are some examples of a self-report technique?
In an experiment, the condition over which the experimenter has direct control.
Independent variable
In an experiment, the condition that may or may not change as a result of changes in the independent variable
Dependent variable
Combination of mental, motor, and developmental abnormalities affecting the offspring of some women who drink heavily during pregnancy.
FAS (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome)
Few examples of FAS
Slow pre- & post natal growth
Facial and body malformations
Disorders of the CNS (poor sucking response, brainwave abnormatlities, sleep disturbance, slow information processing, short attention span, retarded growth, hyperactivitiy)
What did the Human Genome Project study?
Order of DNA base pairs in all the genes in the human body
Small segments of DNA located in definite positions on particular chromosomes.
Coils of DNA that carry the genes
One-celled organism resulting from fertilization
Pair of chromosomes that determines sex; XX in the normal female, XY in the normal male
Sex chromosomes
Male and female sex cells that combine to create a zygote, a single cell.
Genetic makeup of a person, contatining both expressed and unexpressed characteristics
Observable characteristics of a person
Deformed, fragile red blood cells tha can clog the blood vessels, depriving the body of oxygen; symptoms include severe pain, stunted growth, frequent infections, leg ulcers, gallstones, susceptibility to pneumonia and stroke.
Sickle-cell anemia
Degenerative disease of the brain and nerve cells, resulting in death before age 5
Tay-Sach's disease
Condition where body makes too much mucus, which collects in the lung and digestive tract; children do not grow normally and usually do not live beyond age 30; the most common inherited lethal defect among white people
Cystic fibrosis
Pervasive developmental disorder of the brain, characterized by lack of normal social interaction, impaired communication and imagination, and a highly restricted range of abitilities and interests
Chromosomal disorder characterized by moderately-to-severe mental retardation and by such physical signs as a downward-sloping skin fold at the inner corders of the eyes
Down Syndrome or trisomy-21
What increases the probability of Down Syndrome?
An extra twenty-first chromosome or the translocation of part of the twenty-first chromosome onto another chromosome.
The inborn traits and characteristics inherited from the biological parents
The environmental influences, both before and after birth, including influences of family, peers, schools, neighborhoods, society, and culture
Influences of nature
Physical traits
Physiological traits
Average newborn height and weight
20 inches, 7 1/2 pounds
"Soft spots" on the head whewre the bones have not yet grown togethes; covered by a tough membrane
How many hours a day does a newborn baby sleep?
16 hours
What is the Apgar Scale?
A standard measurment of a newborn's condition; measured one minute after delivery and then five minutes after birth
What does an Apgar scale measure?
What did Piaget study?
Cognitive stage theory
Cognitive development
Sensorimotor stages
Learning based on assocation of a stimulus (food) that does not ordinarily elicit a response (salivation) with another stimulus (the bell) that does elicit the response
Classical conditioning - Ivan Pavlov
Learning based on reincorcement or punishment
Operant conditioning - B.F. Skinner
A loss in the rate of a conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus is withheld
Who is best known for early IQ (Intelligence Quotient) tests?
Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon
What does the HOME (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment) demonstrate
The influence of the home environment on children's cognitive growth
Piaget's term for processes by which an infant learns to reproduce desired occureences originally discovered "by chance"
Circular reactions
Piaget's term for organized patterns of behavior used in particular situations
Six substages of Piaget's sensorimotor stage
-Use of reflex
-Primary circular reactions
-Secondary circular reactions
-Coordination of 2ndary schemes
-Tertiary circular reactions
-Mental combinations
When do infants first communicate their emotions?
0-3 months
Examples of babies' emotions
Fear, hunger, pain, frustration, anger, content, interest and distress
When do babies begin to be afraid of strangers?
Second half of the first year
What functions do our emotions perform?
- Communicate needs, intentions, desires, call forth a response
- Mobilize action in emergencies
- Promote exploration of the environment
Know about Harlow's work with monkeys
- Wire monkey with bottle
- Cloth monkey with no bottle
- Baby chose clothed monkey and ate drank from wire monkey
Reciprocal, enduring tie between infant and caregiver, each of whom contributes to the quality of the relationship
Instinctive form of learning in which, during a critical period in early development, a young animal forms an attachment to the first moving object it sees, usually the mother
Know the story of Victor (The Wild Boy of Aveyron)
- Victor (boy in France)
- sent to school for deaf-mutes
- Turned over to Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard
- Itard taught Victor skills (5 years), emotions, social behavior, language and thought with use of "imitation", "conditioning", "behavioral modification"
- Victor liked Madame Guerin
- Learned many things but didn't speak
- Victor found on Jan. 8, 1800. Died in early forties in 1828.
Are most deaf children born to deaf parents?
Know the principles of life-span development by Baltes
[Page 8]
Know Freud's theory of personality
Know Language Milestones from Birth to 3 Years
[Page 173, Table 5-5]