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98 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
John Locke
wondered if children were born as a blank slate
Captain James Cook
found Tahitian children to be very different from European children; no one,including children, equated sex with guilt
Jean Jacques Rousseau
praised "natural man"
Charles Darwin
naturalist and founder of modern evolutionary biology
G. Stanley Hall
incorporated Darwin's evolutionary views into a psychology; founded APA; first to receive a Ph.D. in psychology; first to study children in laboratory
Sigmund Freud
placed tremendous emphasis on the early years of childhood as the force shaping later healthy or unhealthy personalities
Alfred Binet
developed tests designed in distinguish intellectually subnormal from normal children; these were the forerunners of modern IQ tests
Arnold Gesell
systematically compared age-related differences of social, motor, emotional, language, and physical development among children
Jean Piaget
investigated cognitive development of children
John Watson
founder of behavioralism; lectured and wrote about child psychology and child-rearing practices
relying or based solely on experiments or objective observation
a person who studies natural history, especially zoology and botany
Developmental Psychology
the study of age-related differences in behavior
the process by which plants or animals change from earlier existing forms. Darwin understood evolution to occurs primarily through the processes of diversification and natural selection
the discipline that attempts to describe, explain, and predict behavior and mental processes
Cognitive Developmental
age-related changes in behavior as they relate to perceiving, thinking, remembering, and problem solving.
the school of psychology that views learning as the most important aspect of an organism's development. Behaviorists objectively measure behavior and the way in which stimulus-response relationships are formed.
In developmental research, the hereditary component of an organism's development
In developmental research, the environmental component of an organism's development
Temperament Theory
In developmental research, any theory that emphasizes the predisposition an individual has toward general patterns of emotional reactions, changes in mood, or sensitivity to particular stimulation. Most temperament theories view temperament as a genetic disposition.
a test made to demonstrate the validity of a hypothesis or to determine the predictability of a theory. Variables are manipulated during the test. Any changes are compared with those of a control that has not been exposed to the variables of interest
Interobserver Reliability
the degree of agreement or disagreement between two or more observers who make simultaneous observations of a single event
in a controlled study, experimental or research conditions are arranged deliberately so that observed effects can be traced directly to a known variable or variables. The control is similar to the experimental subject but is not exposed to the variable
Independent variable
in an experiment, the variable that is manipulated or treated to see what effect differences in it will have on the variables considered to be dependent on it
Dependent variable
in an experiment, the variable that may change as a result of changes in the independent variable
Observer bias
an error in observation caused by the expectations of the observer
Subject Bias
changes in a subject’s behavior that result from the subject’s knowledge of the purpose of the experiment or from the subject’s awareness of being observed
Double-blind experiment
a research technique in which neither the subjects nor the experimenter knows which subjects have been exposed to the experimental variable. It is used for controlling biases that may be introduced by either the subjects or the researcher.
repeating an experiment to enhance the reliability of the results
an enlargement, increase, or extension of initial research efforts
Single-subject experiment
an experiment in which only one subject participates. Generally, time is used as the control; for example, the subject’s behavior changes over time in relation to the presentation and withdrawal of a variable
a relationship two variables
Case study
an intensive study of a single case, with all available data, test results, and opinions about that individual. Usually done in more depth than studies on groups of individuals.
Baby biographies
relatively informal naturalistic observations of infants’ routines and behaviors
a method of collecting data through interviews or questionnaires
Cross-sectional approach
a research strategy in which investigators examine subjects of different ages simultaneously to study the relationships among age, experience, and behavior
Longitudal approach
a research study design in which investigators follow an individual through time, taking measurements at periodic intervals
a group of people all of whom possess a common demographic characteristic; for example, a group of people born at approximately the same time
Time-lag Design
a research design in which different groups of people are measured on a characteristic or behavior when they are the same age; for example, a group of 2-year-old children is measured in one year, another group of 2-year-old children is measured in the same way in a subsequent year, and so on
Sequential design
a research design that combines elements of different time-dependent research approaches to control for biases that might be introduced when any single approach is used alone
a system of rules or assumptions used to predict or explain phenomena
Environmental theory
theory that emphasizes the interaction between the environment and a person’s genetic inheritance
the accuracy of predictions made from a theory
James Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins
Discovered the structure of DNA
Gregor Mendel
an Australian monk, discovered the fundamental laws that govern inheritance through experiments on pea plants
Queen Victoria VII
English monarch in whom a mutation occurred leading to hemophilia within the royal family.
Dr. John Langdon Down
First to describe Down syndrome
Washburn and Hamburg
Described Canalization in 1965
Garcia and Koelling
Developed a classic experiment to demonstrate the phenomenon of canalization involving rats.
Sir Francis Galton
Cousin of Charles Darwin who coined the term Eugenics. Believed intelligence and civilized behavior is inherited.
A distinct chemical unit or group of atoms that have joined together.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
A chemical constituent of cell nuclei, consisting of two long chains of alternating phosphate and deoxyribose units twisted into a double helix and joined by bonds between the complimentary bases of adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine. It is the substance that enable cells to copy themselves.
The smallest functional unit for the transmission of a hereditary trait; a section of genetic code.
An organism genetically identical to its ancestor organism and derived from its cells.
In developmental research, the hereditary component of an organism’s development.
In developmental research, the environmental component of an organism’s development.
Differential Reproduction
A mechanism by which organisms with favorable traits tend to reproduce in greater numbers than those with less favorable traits, resulting in favored traits in later generations.
Natural Selection
The process first suggested by Darwin through which those individuals of a species best adapted to their environment have a better chance of passing on their genes to the next generation than do those not as well adapted.
In evolution the great range of individual differences that exist in each species from which natural forces may select.
Any heritable alteration of the genes or chromosomes of an organism.
Point Mutation
A mutation that results in the replacement of one base pair by another within the DNA itself.
Member of the most highly developed order of mammals, including humans, apes, and lemurs. Primates are marked by their large stereoscopic eyes, nails (rather than claws), opposing thumbs, and short snouts.
Any family of bipedal primate mammals. Includes all forms of human beings, extinct and living.
A central body within a living cell that contains the cell’s hereditary material and controls its metabolism, growth, and reproduction.
A thread shaped body that is contained within the nucleus of a body cell and that determines those characteristics that will be passed on to the offspring of an organism. Chromosomes carry the genes; humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes.
Male or female germ cell containing one half the number of chromosomes found in the other cells of the body.
The process of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that reduces the number of chromosomes in reproductive cells, leading to the production of gametes
A photomicrograph of chromosomes in a standard array.
Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.
Sex Chromosome
In humans, one of the two chromosomes responsible for producing the sex of the child; the X and Y chromosomes.
Any of a group of possible mutational forms of a gene.
In genetics, describing a gene whose characteristics are expressed while suppressing the characteristics controlled by the other corresponding gene for the trait.
In genetics, describing a gene who characteristics are not expressed when paired with the dominant gene.
In genetics, an organism that carries a particular trait in its genes and, while not expressing that trait itself, is able to pass on the trait to its offspring.
Double Recessive
A condition in which both allelic pairs for a given trait are recessive and no dominant allelic gene is present to override them. In this case, the recessive trait will be expressed
Alleles of a gene pair are identical
Alleles of a gene pair are different
The observable characteristics of an organism due to inheritance
The characteristics that an individual has inherited and may transmit to descendants, regardless of whether the individual manifests these characteristics.
Situation in which heterozygous alleles consist of two dominant genes. In such instances, both genes are expressed.
Sex-Linked Disorder
A hereditary disorder controlled by a gene carried on the sex-determining chromosome. Color blindness is an example.
Modifier Gene
A gene that acts on another gene and modifies the latter’s effects.
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
A genetic disorder marked by an inability to oxidize normally the amino acid phenylalamine. If this disorder is unchecked by a suitable diet, permanent damage is caused to the developing child’s nervous system.
Genectic Imprinting
The process whereby identical sections of the same chromosome will yield different phenotype outcomes, depending on whether the chromosome was inherited from the mother or father.
A single unpaired chromosome that is located where there should be a pair of chromosomes
a chromosomal abnormality in which a third chromosome occurs on a chromosome pair.
Down Syndrome
A chromosomal abnormality that manifests itself in such features as a thick tongue, extra eyelid folds, and heart deformities, as well as deficient intelligence. It is caused by a trisomy of the twenty-first chromosome pair.
Fragile X Syndrome
A sex-linked inherited chromosomal disorder that produces moderate retardation among males who inherit the fragile X chromosome. After Down syndrome, it is the most common biological cause of retardation.
A medical procedure wherein fetal cells are removed from the amniotic sac at about the sixteenth week of pregnancy by use of a syringe. The technique is used to screen for genetic and chromosomal anomalies.
Chorionic Villi Sampling
A technique in which a few cells are removed from the chorionic sac that surrounds the embryo via the use of a plastic catheter inserted through the vagina. The cells may then be examined for chromosomal or genetic disorders.
Tay-Sachs Disease
A fatal double recessive genetic disorder most commonly found among the Jewish population. The disease results in death due to nerve degeneration by the time the victim reaches 5 years of age.
Sickle-Cell Anemia
A sometimes fatal double recessive genetic disorder of the red blood cells that is most commonly found among the black population. The red blood cells form a sickle shape that reduces their ability to carry oxygen effectively.
Human Genome
The complete set of 46 human chromosomes.
Polygenic Inheritance
The control of a single characteristic or function by more than one gene.
The process by which behaviors, due to genetic predisposition, are learned extremely easily, almost inevitably. The more canalized a behavior, the more difficult it is to change to another.
Inborn; referring to the hereditary component of a physiological or behavioral trait.
Sensitive Period
A time during which a particular organism is most sensitive to the effect of a certain stimuli.
Selective breeding of human beings based on certain traits that are desired in the offspring, much like animal breeders work with champion stock.