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102 Cards in this Set

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Preferential Looking
used in the pattern preference technique to measure infants sensation, perception, & cognition; NOT measuring attention; which stimulus does the infant look at more-if look at one stimulus longer means it can discriminate b/w the 2; Robert Fantz
Limitations of Preferential Looking
only be used to study vision; if infant does not show preference, doesn't mean can't discriminate; infant's tendency to look towards right(maybe bc of brain lateralization)-switch sides of stimulus thru trials
measuring changes in infants attention (habituation=decrease in attention); using looking time, sucking rate, & heart rate; if they don't dishabituate they don't discriminate;
Looking Time
how long an infant looks at something
Sucking Rate
HAS=high amplitude sucking, suck more for something they are interested in
Heart Rate
slows down=dishabituate
a procedure used to study infant cognition in which infants are shown an event that should evoke surprise or interest if it violates something the infant knows or assumes to be true
How do these procedures suggest that infants have object permanence sooner than Piaget claims?
(18mos) Piaget's task too hard-required manual search; surprise studies-measure surprise to violation of expectations; Baillageon studies-showed surprise at doll's absent in gap
Why do some researchers believe Piaget underestimated infants' object permanence?
Piaget's view-infants slowly develop object permanence, requires passing invisible displacement; they feel his task was too hard...manual search
What did Baillargeon's doll study show? What was the difference between 3 mos & 3.5 mos old?
Object permanence may be earlier than claimed; 3-dishabituated to no doll in gap situation & 3.5-no, perhaps think they have 2 dolls
What was Diamond's explanation of the A-not-B error?
memory limits-forgets its at B, error increases w/ longer delays, transparent covers still show error; can't inhibit motoric response of going to A-looks at B while searching at A (frontal lobe immaturity-brain damage in frontal lobe produces similar behavior)
Are newborns sensitive to faces? Under what conditions?
newborns have a very small preference for face vs. scrambled face; 2 mos-old, have greater preference; also if moving (Johnson); can recognize mother's face but not if wearing scarf-recognize by contours
How well can babies see? How is acuity tested?
Newborn-20/400; 6-mos-20/70-20/100; 12-mos adult level; tested by a simple vision test of dark lines next to a grey blob, dark lines will also appear as grey blob if can't discriminate, if look at lines can discriminate;
How did Spelke demonstrate that infants understand the common movement principle and the principle of continuity?
first showed rod behind box to 2.5-4 mos old=dishabituated to rod & broken rod; second added movement=dishabituated to broken rod b/c it was novel-maybe broken rod just more interesting; third added opposing movement=dishabituated to solid rod bc novel; object landed on mid-surface or object passed thru surface(impossible) dishabituated to inconsistent display;
Common Movement Principle
if 2 surfaces move together relative to 3rd surface then its perceived as 1 object
Principle of Continuity
objects continue moving on an unobstructed path
How do we know that infants' responses were not simply based on perception, but rather on their understanding?
dishabituated to certain rod depending on the movement; dishabituated to inconsistent display of falling object;
Where does this knowledge come from? How did Spelke interpret the infant's response?
core-knowledge theory-bc evolutionary means aka survival; basic principles are innate 2.5-4 mos;
Hood, et al study w/ 2 year olds
dropped ball down two cups one on top of other; if the children understand continuity then should search in the correct location-upper cup; only 40% searched correctly; explanation: infants results are misinterpreted & don't reveal principle knowledge and looking time measures are more sensitive than search measures of understanding
Monocular Motion Cues
Rod moving around block; 2-3 mos;
Monocular or Pictorial Cues
the perceptual cues of depth that can be perceived by one eye alone; examples are relative size (larger objects are closer) and interposition (near objects partially occlude farther away objects); 7 mos;
Binocular Disparity Cues
the difference between the retinal image of an object in each eye that results in two slightly different signals being sent to the brain; stereopsis is the process by which the visual cortex combines the differing neural signals; 4 mos;
Optical Expansion
a depth cue in which an object occludes increasingly more of the background, indicating that the object is approaching; 1 mos;
Primitive and Survival Reflexes
Primitive reflexes appear at birth but disappear in 3-4 mos, &/or become voluntary, ie=Moro(startle)-arms back, head back, arched back, Palmar-hold finger if in palm, Stepping-pressure of surface on feet; Survival reflexes are at birth and important for survival, ie=breathing & swallowing;
According to the Dynamic Systems Approach how do infants acquire motor skill? What is differentiation and integration?
development reflects interaction of numerous factors: neural development, strength, posture, balance, body size, and experience; each motor skill involves differentiation(development of subskills) and integration(putting subskills together)
How did walking behavior change under different conditions of environmental support(video)?
Esther Faylin; w/ support walked at even pattern, w/o was very irregular steps
What is intermodal perception?
the combining of information from two or more sensory systems; Piaget felt their initially separate & only after some mos do they form associations; Eleanor Gibson (Bahrick & Spelke) argue its early, example is auditory localization;
At what age can infants demonstrate it and what are some examples?
at 1 mos infants looked at pacifier they sucked on in the dark longer; turn toward sounds and reach towards visible objects; 4-5 mos match lip shape to vowels, match tempo to movement, and match touch to appearance;
What is the difference between sensory integration and cross-modal perception?
sensory integration-coordinating 2 senses together ie=turning toward sound & reaching toward visible object; cross-modal perception-connect SPECIFIC experiences across different modalities ie=2 videos of trains & speaker, 4-5mos & matching lip shape to vowels, tempo to movement, and touch to appearance; cross-modal found later than sensory integration; different modalities are linked at different ages (sight & sound earlier than sight & touch)
Classical Conditioning
a form of learning that consists of associating an initially neutral stimulus w/ a stimulus that always evokes a particular reflexive response
Unconditioned Stimulus
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that evokes a reflexive response; ie=the insertion of the nipple into the infant's mouth;
Unconditioned Response
in classical conditioning, a reflexive response that is elicited by the UCS; ie=the sucking reflex;
Conditioned Stimulus
in classical conditioning, the neurtral stimulus that is repeatedly paired with the UCS; ie=the baby sees the breast or bottle before receiving the nipple;
Conditioned Response
in classical conditioning, than originally reflexive response that comes to be elicited by the conditioned stimulus; ie=anticipatory sucking movements now begin as soon as the baby sees the breast or bottle;
Instrumental Conditioning (operant conditioning)
learning the relation between one's own behavior and the consequences that result; Watson & Ramsey study infants in 2nd group that first had incontigency failed to grasp the mobile when they were given contingency mobile;
Positive Reinforcement
a reward that reliably follows a behavior and increases the liklihood that the behavior will be repeated
Obervational Learning
intentionality is a key factor-infants will imitate intentions, ie=trying to pull the end off of something; after 6 mos they imitate humans & expands imitations from there; 6-9 mos imitate even after 24 hr delay; 14 mos imitate even after full week delay; babies imitate humans but not inanimate objects;
Auditory Perception
newborns faintest sound they can detect is 4 times louder than an adults; 5-8yrs hearing approaches adult level; auditory localization;
Auditory Localization
perception of the location in space of a sound source; infants are extremetly sensitive to sound changes & patterns; newborns are likely to localize sound if it continues for several seconds since they are slow at moving their head;
Music Preference
all ages prefer consonance over dissonance; 5-mos dishabituate if notes are mixed in a melody, don't dishabituate if melody played at high or low pitch;
4 aspects of Development of Theory of Mind
1)mind exists-others as intentional agents(8-9mos), follow points and eye gaze by 12 mos, attribute mental/emotional states to others (2 yrs); 2)mind is connected to the physical world-perception leads to knowledge(3yrs), don't understand that different sensory experiences lead to different knowledge, mental states lead to action (3yrs), desires understood before beliefs(2yr olds understand desire not belief and 3yr olds understand desire-belief action model ie=smarties/pencils); 3)mind is separate from physical world-thoughts are private, think about things that don't exist, shaky understanding(imaginary monster in box); 4)mind represents world accurately or inaccurately-contrasts w/ a copy theoory of mind, before 4.5 think mind is a copy of what everyone thinks & feels about the world; by 4.5-5 yrs they have a representational theory of mind, reflects a FUNDAMENTAL change in children's understanding of the mind
Development of intentions, desire, and beliefs
intentions=18mos, desires=2yrs, beliefs=3yrs old understand how beliefs originate, but have false-belief problems
What is the difference between the Copy Theory of Mind vs. Representational Theory of Mind?
Copy of TOM: 3yr olds have, think mind is a copy of what everyone thinks & feels about world; Representational TOM: 4.5-5yrs have this, requires understanding conflicting beliefs about same situation;
How do 3 and 5 year olds differ on the false belief tasks?
establish child's belief, demonstrate that its wrong, then ask about original belief OR someone else's belief(smarties experiment), 3yr olds fail, 5yr olds correct;
How do 3 and 5 year olds differ on appearance reality tasks?
Object properties: show an object-ask color, change color(appearance), ask appearance question: how does it look to your eyes right now?, ask reality questions: what is it really & truly? is it really true white or really & truly red? (fish exp.-hold blue transparent over it), 3 yr olds rely on appearance phenomenon-give appearance answer to both questions, 5 yr olds correct;
Why do autistic children support the core knowledge view of autism?
bc autistic children have a selective deficit on TOM tasks; children w/ autism have a biologically impaired TOMM; difficulty in social interactions, range of language cognitive skills, insist on sameness; primary deficit-understanding mental states, can't follow points/eyegaze, can't predict behavior from beliefs, fail false belief tasks(mental causality) but can understand physical causality-suggests that TOM is a special domain of knowledge;
Core-knowledge theory on the TOM
innate; Theory of Mind Module: a hypothesized brain mechanism devoted to understanding other human beings, matures over the first 5 yrs of life;
Social Interactional influences on Theory of Mind
TOM-emerges from interacting w/ others, family conversations about mental states, children w/ older siblings do better on false belief tasks;
What do preschoolers understand about living things?
personify-attribute qualities of humans to other entities (4-6 yrs); smile less at rabbits than people; plants are not alive; understand difference b/w biological and psychological or physical processes, inheritance-physical traits tend to be passed on, essentialism; basic understanding of illness; plants & animals can heal;
What is an essence?
basic quality or identity; basic essence does not change; essentialism: the view that living things have an essence inside them that makes them what they are;
How does their understanding of natural kinds and artifacts differ?
natural kinds: something found in nature; artifacts: manmade objects; transformation stories are used to demonstrate the difference(racoon still racoon even if painted like skunk, but coffeepot is birdfeeder if changed;
Assumptions on Information-Processing section/contrast w/ other cognitive developmental theories
view of children as active learners and problem solvers who continuously devise means for overcoming their processing limits and reaching their goals; planning, analogical reasoning, and rule formation are major contributors to the development of problem solving; addresses how change occurs; other theories: Piagetian, Core-knowledge, & Sociocultural;
Utilization deficiency
spontaneous use, no need for training, but doesn't improve recall
What are the developmental changes in speed of processing?
increase w/ age in processing on four tasks: visual search, mental rotation, mental addition, and tapping; note that on all four tasks, the increase is rapid in the early years and more gradual later;
Alternative information processing approaches
Connectionist theories: a type of info-processing approach that emphasizes the simultaneous activity of numerous, interconnected processing units-neural network approach; Dynamic-Systems Theories: an info-processing approach that emphasizes how varied aspects of the child function as a single, integrated whole; Overlapping-Waves Theories: an info-processing approach that emphasizes the variability of children's thinking;
Can infants perceive non-native speech sounds? When does this ability end or does it?
young infants perceive speech sounsd in very much the same way that adults do; infants can distinguish between phonemic contrasts that are not made in their own language; 8 mos still can, but at 12 mos they can no longer tell the difference;
Fast Mapping
the process of rapidly learning a new word simply from the contrastive use of a familiar and an unfamiliar word; hand me the dak;
the use of a given word in a broader context than is appropriate; dog for cat;
First words
infants first recognize words and then they begin to comprehend(10-12 mos-40% objects & 60% action)
Vocabulary size
6yrs=10,000wds; 8yrs=20,000wds; 10yrs=40,000wds; college-educated adults=100-150,000wds;
Naming Spurt
19mos; new words being said for the first time every day;
What is the difference b/w the contraints positions & the social pragmatic view?
Constraints: innate language specific mechanisms; needed to solve problem of induction; ie=Quine's dilemma(give me the dak); mutual exclusivity, taxonomic constraint-word refers to entire category of objects, whole object assumption-new word refers to entire object and not part of object; Social Pragmatic View: social & cognitive cues help identify speaker's intended referent: eye gaze, pointing, joint attention;
What are pragmatic cues that children use to learn words?
eye-gaze=hidden box; intentionality=mickey mouse doll; linguistic context=sib; syntactic bootstrapping;
Why is grammar hard?
only certain combos allowed; sentences that should be allowed are not (lectured/talked); sentences can be grammatical even when meaningless;
What is the pattern of early grammatical development?
phonology, semantics, and grammar; correct use of regular or irregular, overregulations, then correct usage;
What are overregulations and what do they suggest about language acquisition?
misapply the rule; ie=my teacher holded the baby rabbits and we patted them, hey horton heard a who?; children are learning rules, children aren't simply imitating, reinventing language;
What is Universal Grammar (UG) and why did Chomsky propose that it is needed?
linguistic universals-rules that are true for all languages, ie=nouns, verbs, adjectives;
What is a LAD?
language acquisition device; language specific learning mechanism;
According to Chomsky what is the quality of children's linguistic input like?
poor; speech to children is sometimes ungrammatical, incomplete; parents rarely correct ungrammatical sentences, do correct semantic errors; children ignore rare corrections;
What evidence supports these claims that children receive poor linguistic input?
Nativism evidence: logical argument, no explicit corrections of errors, Williams syndrome: low IQ, high grammatical abilities, dissociation b/w language and cognition, language learning in children is universally successful;
How do children respond to parental corrections?
ignore rare corrections
What is the difference b/w explicit and implicit corrections?
explicit: come right out and correct-this does not happen whichs supports Nativists view; implicit: parent subtly corrects child-supports interationist view;
What are the major assumptions of interactionist approaches to grammar?
Chomsky completely wrong-grammar emerges out of communicative functions, no innate rules of grammar, biological basis-rapid processing of sounds, grammar depends on socio-cognitive development;
What is the supporting evidence for the interactionist's view?
1) correlations b/w grammar & cognitive development; 2) parents do provide implicit corrections of errors & children benefit; 3) computer models of language learning use general cognitive principles;
How do the following examples support the idea of a critical period-Genie, deaf children, 2nd language learners (john & newport)?
Genie: difficulty in ever learning language-but could be brain damaged; Deaf children: early acquisition for sign language the better; John & Newport Korean study showed that AoA was the best predictor of acquisition, and declines after 7yrs, after pubert no relation to AoA;
Why are conclusion limited for Genie?
not handled in best way, could not follow up
What are the brain bases of language?
Motor cortex, Wernicke's area, Broca's area, and Auditory cortex; damage to Broca & Wernicke's area can cause aphasia;
What is the evidence for specialization w/in the left hemisphere using EEG & aphasia evidence?
listening to speech is shown w/ greater electrical activity in left hemi; damage to it cause aphasia even in deaf people, therefore not just for spoken word;
What difficulties do children have w/ the dual representation of symbols?
the idea that the use of a symbolic artifact can only be achieved if it is represented mentally in 2 ways at the same time: both as a real object and as a symbol for something other than itself; 2.5 fail maybe bc fail to notic symbolic relation;
What is the difference b/w the traditional mental age and deviation IQ score?
traditional MA=[mental age(MA)/chronological age(CA)]=IQ; deviation IQ score: avg IQ=100 for given age, 1sd above=115-based on normal distribution;
Are IQ scores stable or unstable?
more stable at older ages; most stable of all psychological traits;
What do IQ scores predict?
school success
Is intelligence a single trait or separate skills? How is this examined or tested?
Binet gave single score, which suggests a single trait; others suggest that it is made up of multiple distinct traits;
Intelligence: Catell & Horn
fluid intelligence: ability to think on the spot; crystallized intelligence: factual knowledge of the world;
Intelligence: Thurstone
separate distinct skills: 7 primary mental abilities: verbal meaning, inductive reasoning, perceptual speed, number, spatial, memory, and verbal fluency;
Intelligence: Spearman
combination of general and specific intelligences; 2-factor theory: general intelligence "g", subskills linked to g
How does the structure of intelligence change w/ age?
develop specific abilities; early=general intelligence;
How are these influences reflected in behavioral genetic studies?
the older you get the more genes play a role;
In the Skodak & Skeels study do adoptive parents influence children's IQ?
if you look at the average, but correlation-wise no, adoptive mom raised IQ of the group
What does the home enviro(home scale) have on IQ?
higher IQ, variability in daily routine, and consistent discipline; yes but maybe smart parents make smart environments; reflects both home and environment;
How can you separate genes and environment in these circumstances?
examine adoptive parents
Are academic intervention programs successful in influence of IQ?
ahead for a few years, until middle school
what are some enviro risk factors associated w/ low IQ?
poverty, mother not completing high school, no father in house
How does Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences address these criticisms?
theory of multiple intelligences, distinct modules of intelligence
Gardner's modules
traditional: language, math, spatial, & non-trad: artistic, bodily kinesthetics, interpersonal;
Evidence Gardner uses?
Prodigies & savants; selective effects of brain damage;
What are the cultural effects of school? How do schooled and non-schooled children differ?
schooling teaches: perceptual analysis, memory strategies, metacognition;
How do children learn to read? What are the 5 stages?
phonological awareness(1-2grade); gain fluency in reading simple material (2-4 grade); become able to acquire new information from print (4-8grade); acquiring skills and coordinating multiple perspectives(8-12)
What are the 2 word identification strategies?
Phonological recoding: sound letter word correspondance; Visually based retrieval: proceeding directly from the visual form of a word to its meaning;
How is phonological awareness measured & how does it relate to reading?
ie= what are the two sounds in "no", say "top" now w/o t; teaching phoemic awareness skills to 4-5 yr olds causes better readers;
What is dyslexia?
inability to read well despite normal intelligence
Math development, learning algebra
decomposition-using easier problem to solve; schema formation & automatization of basic procedures;