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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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Applied
Done for a purpose Ex)Find cure for AIDS
Interdisciplinary
Combined studies of people from other fields.
theory
orderly set of statements that describe, explain, predict behavior
Continuous Development
"womb to tomb" gradually increasing same types of skills that were there to begin with.
DIFFERENCE between mature and immature=AMOUNT/COMPLEXITY
Discontinuous Development
New and different ways of interpretting & responding to the world. Emerge at particular times.
Applied
Done for a purpose Ex)Find cure for AIDS
Interdisciplinary
Combined studies of people from other fields.
theory
orderly set of statements that describe, explain, predict behavior
Continuous Development
"womb to tomb" gradually increasing same types of skills that were there to begin with.
DIFFERENCE between mature and immature=AMOUNT/COMPLEXITY
Discontinuous Development

Stages
New and different ways of interpretting & responding to the world. Emerge at particular times

Stages are qualitative changes in thinking, feeling, and behaving that characterize specific periods of development.
Contexts
Unique combo of personal and envir. circumstances that result in diff. paths of development Ex) Shy Boy vs. Social Butterfly
Nature
Inborn, hereditary, biological givens from conception.
Nurture
complex forces of physical and social world, influence biological makeup and psychological experiences before and after birth.
Life span perspective
development is...
1)lifelong
2)Multidimensional/Multidirectional
3)plastic
4)embedded in contexts
Lifelong
no age is more important over another. changes are physical, cognitive, social.
Multidimensional
affected by blend of psychological and social forces.
Multidirectional
1)joint of expression of growth and decline.
2)with in the same domain
Plastic
able to change and respond to envir. Ex)Sofie chooses career over marriage-can still marry later on.
Embedded in contexts:
1)Age-graded
events that are related to age and predictable.
Ex)Baby walks at 1 year.
2)History graded
Affected by historical event or era. Ex)Epidemics, war, depression.
3)Nonnormative
affected by unpredicable/accident events in life.
Ex)Tsunami
Views of Childhood
Preformationism
Child=MINI ADULT(baby jesus)
Puritans
Children=evil, sinful therfore harsh parenting!
John Locke
Tabula rasa=child is a blank slate. experiences shape their lives.
Development=continuous&Nuture
Parenting changed to kind and compassionate.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Noble savages=child endowed with natural sense of innate plan for healthy life.
maturation=refers to a gentically determined, naturally unfolding course of growth.
Maturation
Genetically determined, naturally unfolding course of growth.
Psychoanalytic perspective
people move through stages where they confront conflicts of biological drives and social expectations.
Psychosexual Theory
how parents manade their child's sexual and aggressive drives is crucial in first few years for healthy develop.
Three parts of Personality
1)Id
2)Ego
3)Superego
1)Id=source of basic biological needs and desires.
2)Ego=conscious, rational part of personality. Directs Id's impulses.
3)Superego=conscience develops. Child starts to conform to society.
Oral Stage
Baby is focused on sucking breast or bottle. If need is not met thumb suckin/fingernail biting can occur.
Anal Stage
Enjoy holding and releasing feces & urine. Potty training becomes important:if parent tries to early=OCD, anal retentive. If parent is too lax=messy, disorderly development
Phallic Stage
Finds pleasure at the genitals. Oedipus and Electra Conflicts! Adopt same sex parents behavior=feel guilty whenver values are not met.
Latency Stage
Sex insticts die down and new social values from family and peers(same sex)
Genital Stage
phallic impulses reappear. leads to marriage,mature sexuality, and reproduction.
Erickson's Psychosocial Theory
Took sex out of Freud's Psychosexual theory.
Trust vs. Mistrust
Autonomy vs. Shame&Doubt
Initiative vs. Guilt
Etc...
At each stage attitudes and skills are acquired that make individual active member of society.
Development is understood by culture and life situation.
Ex)Yurok Indians and weaning.
Psychoanalytic theory
Clinical Method=take info from several sources to draw personality function of a person. CANT BE TESTED!!
Behaviorism
directly observable events stimuli and responses are focus of study!
Classical Conditioning
Pavlov's Dog(salivation) Based on reflexes. Stimulus yields response. ENVIR is supreme fource in DEVELOPMENT
Operant Conditioning
Skinner. Behavior is increased by reinforcers and decreased by punishment.Which stimulis yields the response we want. Ex)Rat&lever press.
Social Learning
Emphasis on....Social cognition, self-efficacy, and modification.
Bandura. Modeling&imatation learning=powerful source of development.
Ex)Sally and Itchy&Scratchy dolls. Emphasized social cognition-children eventually decide who they want to imitate. Self-efficacy=belief that own abilities will help them succeed. Modification=eliminate undesirable traits. NOT COMPLETE ACCOUNT OF DEVELOP.
Cognitive Development Theory
Piaget. Kids construct knowledge as they explore their world. ACTIVE LEARNERS!
Sensorimotor stage
integration=integrate sensory input with motor input.
preoperational stage
symbolic thought/language/make-believe play. Ex)cops&robbers
Concrete Operational
Meta-cognition:think about what your thinking. (Hierarchy and class system)
Formal Operational
Abstract thought. Reason with symbols that do not refer to objects in real world.
Methods of Study
Interviewed Kids(naturalistic observation)
Recieve info out of pre-verbal kids.
Train a child to perform certain way. (underestimate kids)
Information Processing
Mind can be viewed as symbol manipulating system that info flows through.
active/independent learners.
CANT explain imagination/cognitive abilities.
Develop.continuous change.
Ethology
Lorenz. Adaptive, survival, value of behavior and its evolutionary history.
Imprinting
behavior as the attachment to the mother for feeding and protection.
Critical Period
if something does not happen(developmentally) it never will
Sensitive Period
if something does not happen it still can. OPTIMUL time for capacities to arise.
Evolutionary Developmental psychology
understand how emotional,cognitive,social abilities change with age.
Sociocultural Theory
Focuses on how culture is transmitted to generations. Cooperative dialogues necessary for children to acquire ways of thinking and behaving.
Social mediated process=dependen on support that adults provide as children try new task
Ecological Systems Theory
Bronfenbrenner(Bioecological Model).
Person develops with in a system influence by many levels of surrounding envir. Ex)child raised by village, village raise by...
Microsystem
Inner most level of envir.
Patterns&activities in immediate envir.
relationships=BIDIRECTIONAL
Mesosystem
Connection of microsystems. many variables come into play in development.
Exosystem
other social settings that do not contain person but affect experiences in immediate settings.
Macrosystem
outermost level. Consists of cultural values,laws,customs,and resources.
Ex)Work benefits-good for children
Chronosystem
constantly changing envir.
Changes can be: external OR internal.
Development NOT controlled by envir. or inner despositions.
Systematic Observations
1)naturalistic
2)structured
1)Observe behavior in envir. Ex)kid on playground
2)set up situation to evoke behavior.
TELLS LIL ABOUT HOW ADULTS AND KIDS BEHAVE!!!
Self-Reports
1)Clinical Interview
2)Structure Interview
1)conversation probes info. TOO flexible
2)?'s given in a set,the same way. ELIMINATES flexibility.
Case Studies(generate hypothesis)
Info on one person.
Aim to study people who are few in #-Correlational.
NO CONCLUSIONS.
Ethnography
Understanding a culture or social group. Achieved through participant observation.
Correlational Design
get info on existing groups, look @ relationships b/t people and behavior.
NO CAUSE&EFFECT!
Correl Coefficient=# that describes how to 2 things are associated with one another.
Experimental
CAUSE&EFFECT!
Independent variable=causes change.
Dependent variable=changed by independent.
Random assignment
Longitudinal Design
study over time.
Cohort Effect=indiv. born around same time influence by same things. DISRUPT RESULTS.
Cross-Sectional
group of diff. people studied at same time.
COHORT EFFECTS.
Longitudinal Sequential
Many groups are studied over time. Advantages:Cohort and Long&cross sectional comparisons.
Ethics
Confidentiality and wavers needed!