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89 Cards in this Set

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Critical Periods
Time during which specific events must take place for normal development to occur.Lerenz. Imprinitng birds
Attach to the first thing they see, no movemtn, no survival
Nature Vs Nurture
inborn biological givens
social cultural influences

Role of primary experiences in later development
Environmental antecedents of behavior and cognition (things that happen around us)
Germ Cell
The sperm and ova, which are specialized for sexual reproduction and have half the number of chromosomes normal for a species.
Alleles
a specific form of a gene coded for a particular trait.
Dominant Alleles
The allel that is expressed when an individual possesses two different alleles for the same trait
Recessive allele
THe allele tha tis not expressive when an individual posses two different alleles for the same trait.
Codominance
Outcome in which a trait that is determined by two allels is different from the trait produced by either of the contributing alleles alone.
Genotype
The genetic endowment of an individual
Phenotype
The organisms observable charactristcs that results from the interation of the gyenotype with the environment.
Polygenic trait
A genetic trait that is determined by the interaction of several genes
Heritability
A measure of the degree to which a varation in a particular trait among individuals in a specific population is related to genetic differences among those individuals.
Sex Linked characteristics
Treaits determined by the gene that are found on only teh x and y chromosomes
Most disorders carried by X
Women are less likely to carry two XX
X and Y Chromosomes
the two chromosomes that determine the sex of the baby
Femal xx
Male YX
Proximodistal patterns
Middle out; pattern of development out to the perphery
Cephalocudal patterns
Head down; a pattern od development head down.
Homozygous
having inherited two genes of the same allelic form for a trait.
Heterozygous
having inherited two genes of different allelic form for a trait.
Germinal period
7-10 days from conception
1-50 Sruvive; 8 million chromosome posibilities. Last until the developing organism becomes attache to the wall od the urerus.
Embryonic period
2-8 weeks
The period that extends from the time the organism becomes attached to the uterus until the end of the eighth week of preganacy, when all majior oragan take primative shape.
Support and structure development
Amniotic fluid, placenta, umbilical cord
Major organs laid out, heart beat 4 weeks, lungs , skin, sensory receptors,
Nerve cells, muscles, circulatory system , internal organs
Fetal period
9 -38 weeks
Begins ninth week after conception, with the first sign of the hardening bones
Refined of primitive organ system
Brain and spinal cord; brain continues to develop after birth
Risks of malnutrition
Imbalance between the bodies needs and the intake of nutrients
Low birth weight
Abnormalities to the central nervous system; Death
Teratogens
Environmental agents that cause abnormalities or death.
Damage to developing individual varies with time of exposure
Spontaneous abortion
Alcohol effects on fetus
Developed fetal alcohol syndrome; impaired learning, behavior in adolescents
Effects cognitive and motor function
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Small head, smaller brain, heart defects, retardation, ADD< ADHD
Teratogens impact different women differently
No such thing as safe exposure
Smoking effects on fetus
Spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, neonatal death, low birth weight
Rubella
German Measles
Mild rash
Causes congenital heat disease, cataracts, deafness, mental retardation
AIDS
Acuried Immunodefciency Syndrom
30 % get it if mother have it
Virus passing; through placenta
7th leading cause of death of children under 4
Rh Incompatibility
Complex susbstance on red blood cells
Birth defect-death
Inject mother so baby does not get it
Blood transfusion after baby is born
Principals of Teratogenic effects
Damage to developing individual varies with time of exposure
Zygote: high risk of spontaneous abortion
Embryo: central nervous system damage, limb damage
Fetus: cognitive development
Each treogenic agent has specific impact
Thalidomide-legs and arm deformities
Mercury-Brain damage, Cerebral Palsy
Not all developing individuals react the same way to the same agents.
Apgar Scale
A quick, simple test used to diagnose the physical state of newborn infants
Heart Rate; respiratory effort; Muscle tone; Reflex responsively; Color
Prematurity
Babies born before the thirty-seven weeks
2500 grams weight
Reflexes
Original responses to stimuli that is:
Specific, Well-integrated “full body response”, automatic, involuntary, precursors to voluntary response
Emotion
Feeling states are associated with: distinct physiological reaction, motivation to act, efforts at communication, regulation of interaction with other
Temperament
“goodness fit” Basic style of reaction, dominate mood

3 catogories
Easy babies
Playful regular and adaptive
Difficult babies
Irregular irritable responses are intense
Slow-to-warm up babies
Low in activity level, withdrawn from situations
Crying
Behavior
First weeks-4 months: involuntary
Indicates pain, distress, hunger, loneliness, boredom
After 4 months-can be voluntary “influenced by environment”
Infants only language.
Babinski reflex
Foot stroked: fan and then curl (gone 8-12 months)
Replaced by voluntary grasping, indication of normal neurological development
Moro reflex
(Fear or startle) Throw arms back, and then come forward
In response of being dropped or loud noise (gone 6-7months)
Stepping reflex
When a baby is held upright over a flat surface he makes rhythmic leg movements. (Gone 2-6 months)
Social smiling
When a baby smiles whenever you smile at them
Twin studies
A study in which monozygotic and dizygotic twins of the same sex are compared to each other and to other family members for similarity on a given trait.
Eugenic
A poly of attempting to rid the gene pool of genes considered undesirable by preventing individuals who have the genes from reproducing, thereby ensuring that these genes are not passed on to the next generation.
Naturalistic observation
Observation of the actual behaviors of people in the course of their everyday lives and record what’s happening
Endogenous
The term applies to the cause of development that arise as consequence of the organisms biological heritage.
Development occurs as a result of inborn capacities, bilogical herutage
i. Unique to humans
ii. Unique to our own genetic inheritance
iii. Causes of development that arise as a consequence of the organisms biological heritage.
Exogenous
The term applied to causes of development that come from the environment, particularly from the adults who shape children’s behavior and beliefs.
Genes
The segments on a DNA molecule that act as hereditary blueprint for the organisms development.
Chromosomes
Threadlike structure made up of DNA molecules and genes; 46
Blueprints of heredity
Code for portions not behavior
Zygote
First single cell at conception
Divides over course of first two weeks “46” 23mom 23dad
Jean Locke
English philosopher
That infants inter the world as “blank slate” (their minds are tabula rasa)
Course of experiencing their environment, the guidance of their elders shapes them. “head star”
Jacque Rousseau
French philosopher
Child are born “pure” with natural goodness that is gradually enriched though caring and careful education or is corrupted by civilization.
Wrote a book Emile “every child”
Industrial revolution and the “Creation of childhood”
Children had to work on cool minds and help out with work so that their parents could make enough money to stay alive, 6 years old working
Neoteny
Retention of juvenile characteristics in the adults of a species, as among certain amphibians.
The attainment of sexual maturity by an organism still in its larval stage.
Babyness
Distinguishing a baby from an adult
Big head, prominent forehead, large eyes below the middle of face, round full cheeks.
Appeals to adults
John Bowlby
Founder of attachment on the central debates:
Primacy-infants ability to form secure attachments in first two years establishes attachment style for life.
Discontinuous-there are stages/qualitative shift in attachment
Nurture-it is parental responsively that creates the attachment.
All infants from enduring emotional bonds (attachment:
Beyond need of physical nourishment
Harlow’s wire mesh monkeys studies support the theory
Diss-attachment or disinterest in relationships
Only comes after losing a primary caregiver
Attachment does have a biological purpose
Helps infants maintain physical security from predators
Helps infants feel safe when exploring the environment
Stages of attachment
Stages of attachment
1. pr-attachment
a. Birth to 6 weeks
i. No awareness of being dependent on caregivers
ii. No awareness of being Independent form caregivers
iii. Infant allow other people to take care of them
2. Attachment in the making
a. weeks to 6-8 weeks
i. Infant learn distinguish
1. Between caregiver and self
2. between caregiver and stranger
ii. Infant develop “worries”
3. Clear cut attachment
a. 6-8 months 18024 months
b. Separation anxiety
i. Visceral fear of physical separation from mother
4. Reciprocal relationship
a. 24 months and after
i. Children can contribute to equilibrium of interactions
ii. Childs responsively to parents increases
iii. Mirroring of affect becomes ore mutual
iv. Response-an intentional action from another person.
Internal working models
Infants from mental representations of attachment that becomes the map for all future relationships
Schema for how relationships will be experienced
Primary task of caregiver in firs two years is to offer infant a secure base
Secure base
Solid emotional bonds
Foundation for being in the world
Security to explore world, without it you do not
Security of identity, self of self
Infant self is the relationship with the caregivers
Infant self is the attachment
Infant “me”= me and mom
Separation anxiety
8 months to 18-24 object permanence
Cognitive awareness that objects exit when they are not in sight “out of site out of mind”
Cognitive model for the relationship when the caregiver is not physically present.
Visceral fear of physical separation from mom
Theory of mind
THe ability to think about other peoples mental statesand form theories of how they think.
Control someone’s mind-be able to fool them “can’t lie”
Perceptual salience
1. Understanding is dominated by single most perceptually salient features
a. Whose is older is who is taller
b. Cant tell the difference between appearance and reality
c. Halloween mask, Maynard the cat studies
2. Can’t playfully deceive another “can’t lie”
a. Children don’t have the theory of mind
i. Control someone’s mind-be able to fool them
ii. Do you feel bad you ate the cookie
Geocentricism
The world is seen solely on perspective
Inability to understand what happens in another’s feeling or mind
(talking on the phone and showing them a picture threw phone)
Schema
A mental structure that provides an organism with a model for action similar or analogous circumstances.
Unit of psychological functioning
Mental construction or representationf of events
Provides model for action in future, simlar situation
Eacmple: reflex are primitive schema
Piaget
Swiss biologist
Observed his own kids
1. Development=Biology and environment
a. Reciprocal roles in development change
b. Baby influences own development
i. Baby influences environment
ii. Menotnee -babyness
iii. Activity tries to mast environment,
iv. Knowledge is constructed though action
Baumrind
Two dimensional classification of parenting styles
1. Demandigness:
a. Setting very high standards for children
b. Expecting children to achieve these standards
c. Setting little to no standards
d. Rarely trying to influence children behavior
2. Responsiveness:
a. Accepting of children
b. Engaging in open discussion or verbal give and take
i. Weather or not children have a say
ii. VS Rejecting and unresponsive
Rites of passage
Rituals that marks coming of age, turing 18, 21, vote, drink Drive
Puberty
Become hairy
Femals- menarche 11-15 Period
Males-ejaculation, before voice changed, 13-14
Learned helplessness
The hoplessness and resignation learned when a human or animal perceives no control over repeated bad events.
Martin Sligman (dogs shock)
Harlow monkey studies
1962)
Control group-rhesus monkeys raised by biological mothers
Experimental group-wire mesh moms-bottle fed by wire mesh monkeys
Terrycloth monkeys also in cage, but no bottle
Terrycloth mom-bottle fed by terrycloth monkeys
Wire mesh monkey also in cage, but no bottle (primates like faces)
Results
Infants monkeys clung to terrycloth mother weather or not they had the bottle
Infants in both experimental group:
Grew up to be more aggressive and fearful than in control group
As adults could not engage in normal sexual relationships
Self destructive across life span, hair pulling, gnawing on slef.
Conclusion
Biological imperative or comfort contact
Terrycloth mom were not sufficient to give enough affection
Now more than just comfort, caregiver, heart rate
Gender differences and attachment
1. Mothers more likely to reflets affect, nurture
a. More verbal
2. Fathers are more likely to play
a. More physical
3. True even if father is primary cargiver
4. True cross cultural
5. father more likely to be securely attached to their sons if:
a. father is extrovertes
b. father has a psotive attitude tward parenting
6. less likely attached to infant if:
a. Infant is disabled or unattractive
b. Men are more visual
c. Martial relationships is distresses
7. Infants can establish solid and secure bonds with more than one cargive ( two is optimal”
Infant’s sense of Self
6 months old
Self awareness “seeing one self in mirror
Experience new emotion
No what good and bad
Categories of attachment
Secure attachment; Anxious/Avoidant attachment; Anxious /resistant attachment
Secure attachment
1. Comfortable with mom there
a. Exploring room
2. Distressed when mom leaves
a. Can be comfortable by mom when she comes back and they will go back to exploring
3. Long term patters in relationship
a. Self confident, self sooth, belief in relationships, trust
Anxious/Avoidant attachment
1. Indifferent to mom presence
2. Equally comforted by mom and stranger
3. Does not look at mom for comfort upon return
a. Long tem pattern of relationship
i. Avoid intimacy of people
ii. Fear dependence
iii. Lack of trust in others
iv. Low faith in relationships
Anxious /resistant attachment (two different feelings at the same time)
1. anxious in moms absence
2. Difficulty at mom absences
3. distressed at mom absence
4. not being comforted by her return
5. cannot return to play
a. Long term patters in relationships
b. Desire intimacy, fear of it, overly close, overly far “come close. Go away”
c. Extreme dependence; extreme independence
d. Lack of trust in other , Disorganized mental health problems
Strange Situation
Technique for measuring quality of attachment
A procedure designed to assess children attachment on the basis of their response to a stronger when they are with their mothers, when they are left alone, when they are reunited with their mothers. \
Procedures
1. Mother and infant enter the room
2. mother sit, infant explores
3. stranger enters
4. mother leave room
5. mother returns to room, stranger leaves room
6. Mother leaves room
7. stranger returns to room
8. mother returns to room, stranger leaves
Measures child’s ability:
Explore
Be comfortable by mother; Be comforted by a stranger
Mary Ainsworth
She designed the procedure strange situation
Studied with Bowlby John hopkins
Spatial perspective taking
“Three mountain problem”
They only see what they actually see and can not think about what the other person sees
A failure to take another person perspective
Piaget and Inhelder: mountain diorama studies
Part of the Spatial perspective taking, where children look at what the other child is looking at but when asked what the child sees on the other side they still think they see the same thing as them.
Egocentric speech
When two children take conversational turns, but do not engage in real conversation with each other. “collective monologues”
Maynard the Cat studies
They would put at mask on a cat and ask kids questions to figure out if it is still the cat or not, 3 year olds have a hard time with this but ages older can figure it out.
Flavell studies on dif between
Appearance and reality
They showed the children many different things that looked like other things to see if kids could figure out what they were
3 year olds usually got it wrong, 4 year olds transition stage, 5 answered them like adults
Flavell studies on dif between Precausal Reasoning
When children are asking a lot of question on why and how? This is because they are unable to figure out cause and effect situations.
Percausal thinking-the reasoning of young children that does not follow the procedures of ethical deductive or inductive reasoning.
Spatial perspective taking
“Three mountain problem”
They only see what they actually see and can not think about what the other person sees
A failure to take another person perspective
Piaget and Inhelder: mountain diorama studies
Part of the Spatial perspective taking, where children look at what the other child is looking at but when asked what the child sees on the other side they still think they see the same thing as them.
Egocentric speech
When two children take conversational turns, but do not engage in real conversation with each other. “collective monologues”
Maynard the Cat studies
They would put at mask on a cat and ask kids questions to figure out if it is still the cat or not, 3 year olds have a hard time with this but ages older can figure it out.
Flavell studies on dif between
Appearance and reality
They showed the children many different things that looked like other things to see if kids could figure out what they were
3 year olds usually got it wrong, 4 year olds transition stage, 5 answered them like adults
Flavell studies on dif between Precausal Reasoning
When children are asking a lot of question on why and how? This is because they are unable to figure out cause and effect situations.
Percausal thinking-the reasoning of young children that does not follow the procedures of ethical deductive or inductive reasoning.
Nature
The inherited bilogical predisposition of the individual
Nurture
the influence of social and cultrual environment on the individual.