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52 Cards in this Set

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focuses on age related changes in behavior
developmental psych
a subfield of psych which is the science of behavior and mental processes
developmental psych
science that seeks to understand how and why people change, and how they remain the same as they grow older
human development
biosocial, cognitive and psychosocial
3 domains of behavior
emphasis of the 5 characteristics: multidirectional, multicontextual, multicultural, multidisciplinary and plasticity
life span perspective
social, historical,socioeconomical and cultural
contexts of behavior
scientific method steps
1. formulate question
2.develop a hypothesis
3.test
4.draw conclusions
5. make finding available
observation, surveys, case studies, correlation
descriptive research methods
independent variable, dependent variable, experimental subjects, control subjects, cause and effect
experimental methods of research
cross sectional, longitudinal, cross sequential
age related changes in behavior
groups of different ages compared at same point in time
cross sectional
same group of people studied at intervals over a long period of time
longitudinal
cross sequential
combines cross sectional and longitudinal
good points and bad points of all methods
merits and flaws
systematic set of principles and generalizations that explains development, generates hypotheses and provides a framework for future research
developmental theories
comprehensive theories that have inspired and directed thinking about development for decades but no longer seem adequate as they once were
grand theories
irrational and unconscious forces originating in early childhood that drive human behavior
psychoanalytic theory
theory on which life span development is based
psychosocial development
classical conditioning
learning through association
who is the founder of classical conditioning
Pavlov
learning through reinforcement, law of effect
operant conditioning
founder of operant conditioning
Skinner
learning through modeling, imitation and observation
Social Learning
founder of social learning
Bandura
what do Freud, Erikson and Piaget all have in common?
all have stage theories of development
theory which holds that human development results from dynamic interaction between developing persons and the surrounding culture
sociocultural theory
founder of guided participation and zone of proximal development
Vygotsky
emphasizes the interaction of genes and the environment
epigenetic theory
specific genetic material that an organism inherits from its parents
heredity
gametes
sperm cell and egg
chromosomes, dna, genes
examples of genetic material
sequence of chemical compounds that is held within DNA
genetic code
international effort to map the complete human genetic code
human genome project
the single cell formed fomr the fusing of a sperm and an ovum
zygote
all the nongenetic factors that affect development form the cellular level to the borader effects of nutrition, medical care, SES, economics etc
environment
genotype
what you have
what you see
phenotype
portrays the persons chromosomes
karyotype
color blindness, hemophilia
sex-linked characteristics
characteristics produced by interaction of many genes
polygenic traits
disorder in which part of the x chromosome is attached to the rest of it by a very slim string of molecules, produces mental deficiency
fragile X syndrome
first two weeks of development after conception
germinal period
characterized by rapid cell division and the beginning of cell differentiation
germinal period
3rd through 8th week after conception when all anatomical structures develop
stage of embryo
9th week until birth when all the organs grow in size and complexity
period of the fetus
becomes the central nervous system, the brain and spinal cord
neural tube
organ that encases the embryo and connects its circulatory system with that of its mother
placenta
allows nourishment to flow to the embryo and wastes to flow away
placenta
cephalo-caudal
head to tail
proximo-distal
near to far
agents and conditions including viruses, drugs, chemicals, stressors and malnutrition
teratogens
teratogens that tend to harm the prenatal brain
behaviorial teratogens