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56 Cards in this Set

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Cross-Sectional study
compare groups of subjects at different ages
Sequential cohort studies
combine cross-sectional and longitudinal studies
R. C. Tyrone maze study
Ran mice in maze and divided into groups “maze bright” and “maze dim” utilized selective breeding to breed maze bright and maze dim mice. Proved that learning ability had genetic component
Lewis Terman’s study
compared a group of children with high iq’s with groups of children typical of the general pop *first large-scale longitudinal study that followed the development fo the group over time
Adaptation Piaget
adaptation occurs through assimilation and accomidation
Assimilation
the process of interpreting new information in terms of existing schemata
Accomodation
new information doesn’t fit into existing schemata. The process of modifying existing schemata to adapt to this new information
Piaget’s stages of cognitive development
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal
Sensorimotor stage
first stage of piaget’s cognitive development lasts from birth to age 2 child forms primary and secondary circular reactions and object permanence
primary circular reaction
developed in sensorimotor stage infant begins to coordinate separate aspects of movement. This is the advent of goal oriented bx. i.e. When child is hungry will suck on things indiscriminately
secondary circular reaction
Phase in piaget's cognitive development theory. During this substage, the child becomes more focused on the world and begins to intentionally repeat an action in order to trigger a response in the environment. For example, a child will purposefully pick up a toy in order to put it in his or her mouth.
Object permanence
occurs when the child realizes that objects continue to exist even though the child cannot perceive their existence.
preoperational stage
second stage of piaget. 2-7 Marks beginning of representational thought. centration and egocentrism exist in this phase
centration
held in preoperational stage tendency to be able to focus on only one aspect of a phenomenon. Cannot understand principle of conservation
principle of conservation
notion that physical properties of matter do not change simply because the appearance of the matter changes. Demonstrated this concept by showing that children could not identify that two beakers were equal in the amount of water they held if they were different in shape.
egocentrism
inability to understand that relationships are reciprocal and cannot take the perspective of another person
concrete operational stage
7-11 children can conserve and take perspective of others into account, but are limited to working with concrete objects or information that is directly available. These children have difficulty with abstract thought.
Formal operational
begins at about twelve to and lasts into adulthood
child begins to think logically about abstract ideas. Thinking “Can think like a scientist”
Four basic components of language
phonology, semantics, syntax and pragmatics.
Phonology
sound stem of language, made up of phonemes
Categorical perception
the ability to distinguish between differences in sound that do not denote differences in meaning and those differences in sound that do denote differences in meaning
Semantics
the learning of word meanings
Syntax
refers to how words are put together to form sentences
Pragmatics
Chomsky A subfield of linguistics which studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning. It studies how the transmission of meaning depends not only on the linguistic knowledge (e.g. grammar, lexicon etc.) of the speaker and listener, but also on the context of the utterance, knowledge about the status of those involved, the inferred intent of the speaker, and so on.
Babbling
an important precursor to language. All children babble regardless of ability to hear
Language Acquisition Device
The innate capacity for learning which is thought to be triggered by exposure to language Chomsky
errors of growth
grammatical errors that are universal and not the result of environmental influence, but instead the attempted internalization of grammatical rules.
Transformational grammar
the study of grammar by Chomsky
Diana Baumrind and Parenting Style?
(1) Authoritarian -- children were withdrawn and unhappy

(2) Permissive (affectionate, not at all strict) -- Happy but lacking in self-control

(3) Authoritative (affectionate, firm but fair) -- self-reliant, assertive, happy, friendly, high-functioning kids. Help kids understand and assimilate the ethics of society.
Genie
Girl who was discovered at age thirteen after being almost completely isolated. Was able to develop some language but not perfect synatax. *shows there may be a sensitive period in language development vs a critical period.
Freud's personality development
Based on the notion that the driving force behind humanity it sexual, and not just in having sex way, but in terms of sexual gratification. Fixation at any stage comes from parental over or under indulgence at any one stage. personality development require successfully navigating each one. % stages :

oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital

Oral -- birth to 18 months --

anal -- 18 months to 3 years -- Pleasure comes from the control and release of feces

Phallic -- 3-6 -- Pleasure from self-stimulation of genitals. Boys develop Oedipus, girls Electra, and resolve it by identifying with the same sex parents.

Latency -- adolesence -- focus on school and growing up lasts till puberty

Genital: begins at puberty lasts through adulthood. If previous stages completed successfully child will become normal heterosexual.
Oral phase
birth - 18 months gratification is obtained through putting objects in mouth
Anal stage
one-3 years labidinal energy centered on anus. gratification obtained through elimination and retention of waste materials
Fixation would lead to either sloppiness or excessive orderliness
Phalic stage
3-6 get through this stage by resolving oedipal complex. Male envies father's sexual relationship with mother. fears castration. sublimates guilt by identifying with father and forming sexual identity internalizing moral values.
Child sublimates labidinal energy putting it into school work or collecting things
Latency
After resolution of oedipal complex through sublimation of libido. ends in pubert
Genital stage
Begins at puberty lasts through adulthood. if prior development has proceeded correctly at this point the person should enter into health heterosexual relationships
Heinz Dilemma
Test devised by kholberg to test moral stages of individual. Asked about stealing medicine for sick wife if couldn't afford it.
Kohlberg's stages of moral development?
Kholberg believed that there were three phases of moral development each consisting of two stages: Preconventional, conventional, post-conventional.
First phase kohlberg
First stages of moral development
Proconventional Morality
Stage 1. Obedience and Punishment Orientation: Kohlberg's stage 1 is similar to Piaget's first stage of moral thought. The child assumes that powerful authorities hand down a fixed set of rules which he or she must unquestioningly obey. To the Heinz dilemma, the child typically says that Heinz was wrong to steal the drug because "It's against the law," or "It's bad to steal," as if this were all there were to it. When asked to elaborate, the child usually responds in terms of the consequences involved, explaining that stealing is bad "because you'll get punished"


Stage 2: Individualism and Exchange. At this stage children recognize that there is not just one right view that is handed down by the authorities. Different individuals have different viewpoints. "Heinz," they might point out, "might think it's right to take the drug, the druggist would not." Since everything is relative, each person is free to pursue his or her individual interests.
Second Phase kohlberg
Conventional phase
Stage 3 Good Interpersonal Relationships. At this stage children--who are by now usually entering their teens--see morality as more than simple deals. They believe that people should live up to the expectations of the family and community and behave in "good" ways. Good behavior means having good motives and interpersonal feelings such as love, empathy, trust, and concern for others.

At stage 4, in contrast, the respondent becomes more broadly concerned with society as a whole. Now the emphasis is on obeying laws, respecting authority, and performing one's duties so that the social order is maintained.
Kohlberg's 3rd phase
Postconventional

Stage 5. Social Contract and Individual Rights. At stage 4, people want to keep society functioning. However, a smoothly functioning society is not necessarily a good one. A totalitarian society might be well-organized, but it is hardly the moral ideal. At stage 5, people begin to ask, "What makes for a good society?" They begin to think about society in a very theoretical way, stepping back from their own society and considering the rights and values that a society ought to uphold. They then evaluate existing societies in terms of these prior considerations.

Stage 6: Universal Principles. Stage 5 respondents are working toward a conception of the good society. They suggest that we need to (a) protect certain individual rights and (b) settle disputes through democratic processes. However, democratic processes alone do not always result in outcomes that we intuitively sense are just. A majority, for example, may vote for a law that hinders a minority. Thus, Kohlberg believes that there must
Psychosocial theory
Erik Erikson's theory of delvelopment. Development is a sequence of central life crises. In each of these crises there is a possible favorable outcome and a possible unfavorable outcome. Development occurred through resolution of conflicts between needs and social demands.
Phases of psychosocial theory
trust vs mistrust,
autonomy vs shame and doubt
initiative versus guilt
industry versus inferiority
identity versus role confusion,
intimacy versus isolation, generativity versus stagnation,
Integrity versus despair
Trust vs Mistrust
first phase of Psychosocial theory first year of life. if resolved successfully the child will come to trust his or her environment, if unresolved child will be suspicious of world possible throughout life
Autonomy vs shame and doubt
Second phase of psychosocial theory 1-3 years Favorable outcome: feeling of will and ability to exercise choice as as well as self-restraint. Child will have sense of competence and autonomy. Unfavorable outcome: sense of doubt and lack of control. A feeling that what happens to one is a result of external forces rather than one's own volition
Initiative Vs guilt
Third phase
3-6 years
favorable outcomes: purpose, ability to initiate activity and ability to enjoy accomplishment. Neg: Child will be so overcome by fear of punishment that the child may unduly restrict himself or may overcompensate by showing off
Industry vs Inferiority
Fourth phase of psychosocial theory
6-12
Favorable: child will feel competent and will be able to exercise his or her abilities and intelligence in the world and affect world in way child desires.
Unfavorable: Results in a sense of inadequacy a sense of inability to act in a competent manner, low self-esteem
Identity vs. Role confusion
Fifth phase of psychosocial theory
during adolescence
Favorable: ability to see oneself as a unique and integrated person with sustainted loyalties
Unfavorable: confusion of one's identity and a kind of amorphous personality that shifts from day to day
Intimacy versus isolation
sixth phase of psychosocial theory
young adulthood
Favorable: ability to have intimate relationships with others. Ability to commit oneself to another person and one's own goals.
Unfavorable; Avoidance of commitment kind of alienation and distancing of oneself from others and one's ideals
Generativity versus stagnation
seventh phase of psychosocial theory
Middle age
Favorable: individual capable of being productive, caring, contributing memeber of society.
Unfavorable: one aquires a sense of stagnation and may become self-indulgent bored and self-centered
Integrity vs despair
Final phase of psychosocial theory
Old age
Favorable: acceptance that one's life has been worth while
Unfavorable: Feeling that life has been worthless
Harry Harlow
Baby Rhesus monkeys cloth mother versus wire mother. Cotact comfort was more essential in bond formation than physical need
Strange situation procedure
experiment performed by mary ainsworth to explore attachment relationships of infants
1 infant allowed to explore room
2 stranger comes into room talks with mother and then plays with child
3. mother leaves child and child plays with stranger
4. Stranger leaves mother returns
5. Infant left alone
6 Mother leaves strange interacts with child
7 Stranger leaves mother interacts with child
Found three types of attachment:
Secure attachment
Insecure/avoidance attachment
Insecure/resistant attachment
Insecure/ avoidant attachment
infants are not distress when left alone with the stranger and avoid contact with the mother upon her return
Secure attachment
infant mildly distressed during separation from the mother but greet her postively when she returns
Insecure/resistant attachment
distressed during the separation and are inclined to resits physical contact with the mother upon her return