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25 Cards in this Set

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field of study that seeks to account for the gradual evolution of the child's cognitive, social, and other capacities first by describing changes in the child's observed behaviors and then by uncovering processes and strategies that underlie these stages
child development
genetically determined process of growth that unfolds naturally over a period of time
maturation
learning perspective which holds that theories of psychology must be based on observations of actual behavior rather than on speculation about motives or unobservable factors
behaviorism
type of learning in which two stimuli are presented together until individuals learn to respond to the unfamiliar stimulus in the same way they respond to the familiar stimulus
classical conditioning
type of learning in which learning depends on the consequences of behavior; rewards increase the likelihood that behavior will recur, whereas punishment decreases that likelihood
operant conditioning
learning theory that stresses the importance of observation and imitation in the acquisition of new behaviors, with learning mediated by cognitive processes
cognitive social learning theory
theory of cognitive development that sees the child as actively seeking new information and incorporating it into his knowledge base through the processes of assimilation and accommodation
Piagetian theory
theory of development, proposed by Lev Vygotsky, that sees development as evolving out of children's interactions with more-skilled individuals in their environment
sociocultural theory
theories of development that focus on the flow of information through the child's cognitive system and that are particularly interested in the specific operations the child performs between input and output phases
information-processing theories
Freud's theory that development, which proceeds in discrete stages, is determined largely by biologically based drives shaped by encounters with the environment and through the interaction of three components of personality-the id, ego, and superego
psychoanalytic theory of development
in freudian theory, the person's instinctual drives; the first component of the personality to evolve, the id operates on the basis of the pleasure principle
id
in freudian theory, the rational, controlling component of the personality, which tries to satisfy needs through appropriate, socially acceptable behaviors
ego
in freudian theory, the personality component that is the repository of the child's internalization of parental or societal values, morals, and roles
superego
primary dynamic of the phallic stage of Freudian development theory in which the boy is sexually attracted to his mother, is a rival with his father, and fears his father's retribution
Oedipus complex
primary dynamic of Freud's phallic stage in which a girl resents her mother for having deprived her of a penis and transfers her affections to her father.
Electra complex
Erikson's theory of development that sees children developing through a series of stages largely through accomplishing tasks that involve them in interaction with their social environment
psychosocial theory
theory that proposes that individuals develop and function within systems and that studies the relationships among individuals and systems and the processes by which these relationships operate
dynamic systems theory
theory of development that stresses the importance of understanding not only the relationships between the organism and various environmental systems but the relations between such systems themselves
ecological theory
In Brofenbrenner's ecological theory, the context in which children live and interact with the people and institutions closest to them, such as parents, peers, and school
microsystem
the interrelations that obtain among the components of the microsystem with which the child interacts
mesosystem
the collection of settings that impinge on a child's development but in which the child does not play a direct role
exosystem
system that surrounds the microsystem, mesosystem, and exosystem, and that represents the values, ideologies, and laws of the society or culture
macrosystem
time-based dimension that can alter the operation of all other levels, from microsystem through macrosystem
chronosystem
theory that holds that behavior must be viewed and understood as occurring in a particular context and as having adaptive or survival value
ethological theory
theory that sees development as a process that continues throughout the life cycle, from infancy through adulthood and old age
life span theory