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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Rate-of-Living Theories
Limited energy
Excess calories: “eat less – live longer”
Hayflick limit
limited number of times a cell can
divide
cross-linking
Proteins (collagen) interact randomly
and produce molecules that are linked in such a way
as to make the body stiffer
-The more cross-links there are, the stiffer the tissue
free radicals
-unstable molecules
- highly reactive chemicals created in normal metabolism
__________ may cause cellular damage, which
impairs the functioning of the organ or may block the
effects of important molecules
Free Radicals
Programmed-Cell-Death Theories
Aging programmed into genetic code
Presbyopia
(difficulties seeing close objects) due to
declined ability of the lens to adjust and focus
cataracts
opaque spots on lens limit amount of light
transmitted  foggy vision and eventual blindness
reduced sensitivity to high-pitched tones;
Caused by four types of changes in the inner ear,
namely: sensory, neural, metabolic, mechanical
Presbycusis
Myocardial infarction
Heart attack
Cerebrovascular accident
Stroke
Ability to detect different tastes _______ gradually
• BUT: number of taste cells do not change across lifespan
declines
What is the balance system?
The vestibular system
What are the characteristics of osteoarthric bone tissue?
Loss of bone mass inside the bone
makes bones more hollow and porous
leading cause of broken bones in older
women
Osteoporosis
Climacteric:
Perimenopause leads into menopause (ovaries will
stop releasing eggs)
Menstrual cycle becomes irregular, and finally stops
– Changes in reproductive organs and sexual functioning
– Decreases in estrogen and progesterone levels
Perimenopause
brain + spinal cord
central nervous system
across adulthood, circadian rhythm moves from _________ pattern
of sleep to a ________ pattern
two-phase, multi phase
What are the two major causes of death in middle adulthood?
Cardiovascular diseases and cancer
Gradual decline in fertility
climacteric
decreased elasticity of the skin; loss of bone mass
osteoporosis
Atherosclerosis
loss of estrogen’s protection against accumulation of
plaque on the walls of the arteries
Effects of drop in estrogen following menopause
• reproductive organs shrink in size; genitals are less easily
stimulated; vagina lubricate more slowly
• decreased elasticity of the skin; loss of bone mass
Where is muscle and fat gained in middle adulthood for men and women?
Men: upper abdomen, back
Women: waist, upper arms
Age-Related Changes in the Absence of
Physical Activity
Muscle mass declines whereas total weight and the
amount of fat increases
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
is the amount of daily energy expended
• while at complete rest
• in a neutrally temperate environment and
• with no digestive activity.
the individual’s body
weight divided by the square of his or her height
Body Mass Index
Adult Onset Diabetes Type II
Too little insulin or body cells insensitive to insulin
diabetes mellitus
Type II diabetes
Angina pectoris
chest pain (oxygen deprived heart)
Hormone therapy
low daily doses of estrogen to reduce the physical
discomforts of menopause
-estrogen alone
• for women who have had hysterectomies (removal of
uterus)
Estrogen replacement therapy
Hormone replacement therapy
estrogen plus progesterone
• for all other women
• reduces risk of cancer of the endometrium (lining of the
uterus), a serious side effect of hormone therapy
emotional component, expression of concern about the
other’s well-being, involves warm, tender communication
Intimacy
desire for sexual activity and romance, the physical- and
psychological-arousal component
Passion
cognitive component, leading partners to decide that they
are in love and to maintain in love
Commitment
Divorce Rate increases/decreases with Age?
decreases
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Middle Adulthood
Intimacy Vs. Isolation
Early Adulthood
Ego integrity vs. despair
Late Adulthood
Ego differentiation vs. work-role preoccupation
after retirement, people must find other ways of affirming
their self-worth – through family, friendship, & community
Body transcendence vs. body preoccupation
older adults must transcend physical limitations by
emphasizing compensatory rewards/means/goals
Ego transcendence vs. ego preoccupation
must face the reality of death constructively
• continued effort making life “better” for the next generation
an “evolutionary” view that traditional gender roles are maintained
during the active parenting years to help ensure the survival of
children, but after children reach adulthood, parents are free to
express the “other-gender” side of their personality
Parental imperative Theory
Life Events View
Midlife changes simply
adaptation to normal life
events
Stage View
Midlife changes are
developmental transitions
or crises
Describe some changes in personality in late adulthood
• greater acceptance of change
• more agreeable
• less sociable
are typical patterns of interactions in which an elder's dependency behaviors (such as needing help with tying their shoes) are attended to immediately. This type of action ultimately reinforces these behaviors
dependency support script
are patterns of interactions in which an elder's independent behaviors (such as being able to tie their shoes on their own) are ignored. As a result, these behaviors occur less often
Independence- Ignore script
Mutual withdrawal of elders and society in
anticipation of death
disengagement theory
activity theory
Social barriers cause declining interaction;
not the desires of elders
Strive to maintain consistency between
past and future
continuity theory
focus on emotional rewarding contacts;
• more selective in social partners with age
• Emphasize emotion-regulating functions
of social contact
socioemotional selectivity theory