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79 Cards in this Set

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What is Neurogenesis, and what's one chemical often used in it?
cell proliferation & cell creation;

beta catenin
Cell Differentiation
development of a cellular phenotype
Cell Migration
movement of cells to their final locations
Pathseeking
creation of connections, aka neurite outgrowth, synapse formation
What is Apoptosis?

What causes it?
programmed cell death, caused by lack of neurotrohpic factors
What do Caspases do, and how do they work?
cause cell death by cleaving (cutting peptide bonds) on proteins at the carboxy-terminals of amino acids connecting to the amino acid aspartate
Beta Catenin
an example of a protein that stimulates cell division in stem cells; NEUROGENESIS
Reelin
a chemical telling cells to stop migrating
Where does Adult Neurogenesis occur?
*hippocampus
*olfactory bulb
*perhaps in other areas
Achaete-scute Proteins
let a cell become a support cell
bHLH Transcription Factors
let cell become a neuronal precursor
CNTF in glial development leads to...
leads to astrocytes
PDGF in glial development leads to...
leads to oligodendrocytes
Radial Glial Cells
An early appearing glial cell (Radial Glia) is also attached to the ventricular surface and pial surface.

SCAFFOLDING IN THE EPENDYMAL LAYER
Inside out Development of the Neocortex: explain!
Cells created early in development occupy the lowest layer of the cortex, those that develop late in development are found at the surface.
Neurotrophic Factor: explain
if target cell number was increased a greater number of presynaptic cells survived. The chemicals released from target cells that have these properties are called Neurotrophic Factors – peptides.
Neurotrophins: example, and function
Are neurotrophic factors

examples: NGF, BDNF, Neurotropin 3, Neurotrophin 4
Tyrosine Kinase Receptors (trk A, B, C); what are they and how do they work?
All receptors for neurotrophic factors are tyrosine kinase receptors; the activation of which, in a similar fashion to G protein activation, stimulates second messenger pathways and regulates gene transcription
Cadherins, Laminin
examples of chemoaffinity chemicals found in the extracellular fluids
Semaphorins, Netrin
examples of chemoaffinity chemicals found on cell surfaces
Cones
color-sensitive receptors in eyes
Rods
non-color sensitive receptors in eyes
Retinal Ganglia Cells
axons which form the optic nerve
Lateral Geniculate Nucleus has 6 layers. Which are ipsalateral; which are contralateral?
ipsalateral: 1, 4, 6
contralateral: 2, 3, 5
Area V1 (Striate Cortex):

Where is it, and what else is it called?
in occipital lobe; = Primary visual cortex = Calcarine cortex
Principles behind experienced induced alternation of visual circuitry
Hebbian:

FIRE TOGETHER WIRE TOGETHER

OUT OF SYNC LOSE YOUR LINK
What is the significance of the ependymal layer in development?
It's where stem cells are.

The nervous system originates from stem cells (ependymal cells) -Undifferentiated, multipotential cells- found along the edge of the ventricular spaces – ventricular zone or the EPENDYMAL LAYER – of the brain.
Neural plate
End of 3rd week: group of medially placed cells appear dorsally in the ectoderm.
Neural groove
Soon after its formation the neural plate folds inward at the midline and cells proliferate laterally.
Neural tube
As the lateral areas grow they move upward and eventually merge together at the top to form neural tube

FORERUNNER OF BRAIN'S VENTRICULAR SYSTEM
What are Delta and Notch?
DELTA: ligand
NOTCH: receptor

Initially, all cells in “proneural” areas of the fruit fly express delta and notch in equal amounts, then, minor differences in the initial levels of delta in one cell induces a cascade that will cause one cell to become a nerve cell and its neighbors to become glia or some other kind of support cell.

Enhanced delta activity in one cell activates the notch receptor in an adjacent cell which then inhibits the second cell’s ability to make delta.
Occular Dominance Columns: where are they?
Layer IV of Area V1 / Striate Cortex
Occular Dominance Columns: how were they discovered?
Hubel and Wiesel injected radioactive stuff into eye --> radioactive areas are the occular dominance columns
Occular Dominance Columns: how do they develop?
ODCs don’t exist at birth; Layer 4 responds to both eyes
Over time, diff. regions of the brain begin to specialize; become responsive to input from only one eye

(Tested via monocular visual deprivation on animals)
At 2 weeks, eye goes to entire layer 4
At 13 weeks, ODCs are really really large for open eye
Cranial Nerve 1:
Olfactory. Smell.
Cranial Nerve 2:
Optic. Eyes.
Cranial Nerve 3:
Ocularmotor. Ocular motor.
Cranial Nerve 4:
Trochlear. Ocular motor.
Cranial Nerve 6:
Abducen. Ocular motor.
Cranial Nerve 8:
Vestibulocochlear; audio and balance
Cranial Nerve 10:
Vagus: major nerve of vPNS
The Rhinencephalon is in the _______ and is responsible for ______.
Forebrain

olfactory/smell
The Limbic Cortex is in the _______ and contains ______, _____, _____.
Forebrain

amygdala, hippocampus, cingulate cortex
The amygdala is in the ______, and is responsible for ______.
Limbic cortex

emotion
The hippocampus is in the ________
limbic cortex
Cingulate cortex: PLACE, FUNCTION
LIMBIC CORTEX

attention/self monitoring, feelings
Thalamus: P/C
3rd ventricle / diencephalon; forebrain

LGN/MGN
Hypothalamus: P/F
3rd ventricle / diencephalon; forebrain

Pituitary
Tectum contains:

Tectum is in:
Superior and inferior colliculi

Midbrain
Superior colliculus: P/F
Tectum; vision [motor/sensory]
Inferior colliculus: P/F
Tectum; hearing [motor/sensory]
Tegementum P/C [4]/F
Midbrain

RED NUCLEUS
SUBSTANTIA NIGRA
VENTRAL TEGMENTAL AREA
CRUS CEREBRI

movement/dopamine
Hindbrain: CONTAINS
Myelencephalon and Metencephalon
Myelencephalon P/C:
HINDBRAIN

MEDULLA
medulla P/C
Myelencephalon, fibers of passage
Metencephalon P/C:
HINDBRAIN

PONS, CEREBELLUM
Pons P/C
Metencephalon, fibers of passage
Cerebellum P/F
Metencephalon

movement / phys. coordination
Basal ganglia P/F/C
Forebrain

regulates motor movement; works w/motor cortex; inhibits and facilitates

Striatum / Pallidum
Striatum P/C
Basal Ganglia

Caudate Nucleus & Putamen
Pallidum P/C
Basal Ganlia

Globus Pallidus
M pathway ("HOW")
Retina; Rods, M-Ganglia Cells
LGN layers 1, 2
V1: layer 4Calpha --> 4B (moving edges)
V2: thick stripe region (moving edges)
V2--> V3, V5
**V3: dynamic form vision
**V5/MT: motion-detection input
P pathway ("WHAT")
Retina; Cones, P-Ganglia Cells
LGN layers 3-6

V1: layer 4Cbeta --> 2, 3
**Blob: COLOR
**Interblob: ORIENTATION

V2:
**Thin Stripe receives input from Blob
**Interstripe receives input from Interblob

V2 --> V3, V4
**V3: mainly from interstripe, dynamic vision
**V4: mainly from thin stripe, color
Blob
COLOR
Interblob
ORIENTATION
Akinotopsia (WHAT, CAUSE)
Strobevision; V5/MT area
Achromatopsia WHAT/CAUSE
Total Colorblindness, V4 damage
Chromatopsia WHAT/CAUSE
Color vision only, blob cells have more oxygen; more resistant to anoxia [e.g., CO poisoning]
Object Agnosia
classically defined as an inability to recognize objects visually in spite of preserved, biological vision
Balient's syndrome

[and what's a major symptom of it]
can’t see full visual field at once;

simultanagnosia
simultanagnosia
inability to see two things at once
Ocular Ataxia
inability to point accurately
Ocular Apraxia
inability to fixate accurately
Blindsight
lack of conscious awareness of vision BUT with ability to detect stimuli
Blob/Interblob WHERE/WHAT
Layers 2, 3 of Striate Cortex

Blob: COLOR
Interblob: ORIENTATION
Area V2: Thick/Thin/Interstripe
Thick: MOTION

Thin: COLOR

Inter: FORM IN MOTION
V3, V4, V5/MT:
V3: Dynamic form / moving form vision

V4: Color

V5/MT: Motion
Cranial Nerve 5:
Trigeminal; Mastication
Cranial Nerve 7:
Facial; face surface muscles